Height - 24-25 cm, weight - 300-350 g.
At last! Half of the pregnancy is behind. Mothers who give birth for the first time may feel the movements of their baby, if only they have not already felt them before. Those who give birth not for the first time usually feel "shaking" 2-3 weeks earlier.
If dad puts his ear to mom's belly, he can make out the baby's heartbeat. And in any case, the heartbeat is well heard through a stethoscope.
By observing the kicks and kicks, the mom can tell exactly when the baby is sleeping and when he is playing. She can even play with him herself if she touches her belly in different places. After a while, the baby understands the game and responds with a push to the area where the mother's hand is.
You can talk to your child, this is especially helpful if he behaves too restlessly. From the sound of mom's voice and her stroking, the baby usually calms down pretty quickly.
If you feel small, rhythmically repetitive thrusts, it is most likely hiccups. After all, the baby swallows up to 14 ml of amniotic fluid daily, with which it receives additional nutrients and hormones. How can we do without not squealing a little!
The kidneys and intestines are working with might and main. The baby produces 7-14 ml of urine per day, and meconium (original feces) in the intestines. You can see meconium for yourself: in the first day or two after giving birth, your baby will defecate with it until it is replaced by normal baby feces.
The baby's skin already consists of two layers: the epidermis and the dermis. The so-called vernix appears on his head and body. This is a special cream-white substance that protects the baby's skin from damage and microbes.
The substance is formed from the secretions of the sebaceous glands and the remnants of skin cells. It mainly accumulates in the groin, on the bends of the arms and legs, on the head. Often, the lubricant is retained until delivery and will be wiped off by the midwife after the baby is born.
The baby's body begins to gain muscle and fat. He gets fat and rounds. Usually, from this week, doctors make sure that the mother does not overeat buns and cakes too much, otherwise the baby can grow fat up to 4-5 kg, and giving birth to such a hero is much more difficult than a child of "graceful" sizes (3-4 kg). Distinct eyelashes and eyebrows appear on his face.
An ultrasound study already easily determines the sex of the child, as well as the real gestational age, the approximate date of birth. The ultrasound will also show fetal abnormalities, if any.
If you are employed, there are only 10 weeks left until maternity leave. It's time to complete all your current affairs and prepare for the most important thing - the birth of a baby and his first year of life.
This period is the real heyday of pregnancy. A woman gets a second wind from somewhere. She is cheerful and full of strength, often builds and, even stranger, realizes the most fantastic plans. Her skin, hair, eyes seem to shine with a special light, full of shine and beauty.
This week, the sensations of fetal movement should be quite distinct. If you still don't feel them, then you should listen to yourself more closely. Maybe you are mistaking the movements for something else?
Weight gain is starting to be rapid and is now 4.5 - 5 kg. Get ready for the fact that you can further gain 0.5 kg per week! It's not hard to estimate that you have another 10 extra pounds ahead. Still, try not to exceed this figure. If you have previously overweight, we recommend that you carefully monitor what you eat, or consult a doctor.
So, your tummy can no longer be overlooked and you are finally beginning to give up space in transport! The bottom of the uterus has reached the navel. It has grown and presses on the kidneys, stomach and even lungs. Over the next weeks, you will increasingly run to the toilet (pressure on the bladder), you may experience shortness of breath (pressure on the diaphragm, will pass 4-6 weeks before delivery after the abdomen drops).
The height of the fundus of the uterus (as doctors call its length) at week 20 is 18-24 cm (usually exactly 20). You have already noticed that every time you visit a doctor, he always measures your belly with a centimeter. He checks that the size of the uterus matches the pregnancy.
If you really want to, you can do this simple procedure yourself. The reference point is the location above the urethra where the pubic bones meet. Feel for it in your lower abdomen, just below your hairline. The sensations can even be a little painful. The fundus of the uterus at 20 weeks is at the level of the navel. Measure the distance between the top and bottom points. Check the values you get.
Pregnancy period (week) - Uterine fundus height (see)
8-9 weeks - 8-9 cm.
10-13 weeks - 10-11 cm.
14-15 weeks - 12-13 cm.
16-17 weeks - 14-19 cm.
18-19 weeks - 16-21 cm.
20-21 weeks - 18-24 cm.
22-23 weeks - 22-23 cm.
24-25 weeks - 24-25 cm.
26-27 weeks - 26-27 cm.
28-29 weeks - 28-29 cm.
30-31 weeks - 30-31 cm.
32-33 weeks - 32-33 cm.
34-35 weeks - 34-35 cm.
36-37 weeks - 36-37 cm.
38-39 week - 38-39 cm.
40-41 weeks - 40-41 cm.
From week 20, there is an increase in the height of the fundus of the uterus by about 1 cm per week. Therefore, when measuring, you should get a result equal to your gestational age (plus or minus 2 cm). A lag of 3 cm is considered pathological.
If the height of the uterine fundus is less than the gestation period, then it is possible:
- an error in the established period of pregnancy;
- lack of water;
- delayed fetal development;
- fetal malformation.
If, on the contrary, the height of the fundus of the uterus exceeds the gestational age, then we can assume:
- timing error;
- multiple pregnancy;
- the child is one, but large.
If the height of the fundus of the uterus does not significantly correspond to the gestational age, additional examinations are prescribed (ultrasound, cardiotocography, Doppler). By the way, about research. You should visit your doctor for a complete blood count, urinalysis, and possibly a D-Dimer hemostasiogram.
A hemostasiogram evaluates your blood for how it coagulates or, conversely, resists coagulation. This is very important to know in order for your labor to proceed normally. If your blood coagulation system is too high, then thrombosis may occur in the mother and, which is very important, in the vessels of the placenta. D-Dimer is a particularly striking marker for thrombus formation.
If, on the contrary, the blood coagulates poorly, then bleeding, placental abruption and other troubles are possible. You need to take the test on an empty stomach. If you are already taking any drugs that affect blood clotting, this is noted on the test form. Quite often, the doctor even recommends that you stop taking such medications a few days before the analysis in order to get more accurate data.
Also, for a period of 20 weeks (in the interval of 18-22 weeks), an ultrasound scan is performed. Ultrasound shows the main parameters of the baby's development:
1) The length of the femur and tibia.
Week 18 - 28 mm thigh, 23 mm tibia;
Week 19 - 31 mm thigh, 26 mm shin bone;
Week 20 - 34 mm thigh, 29 mm tibia;
21 weeks - 37 mm thigh, 32 mm shinbone;
22 weeks - 40 mm thigh, 34 mm shinbone;
2) The transverse size of the abdomen.
Week 18 - 44 mm;
19 week - 50 mm;
20 week - 52 mm;
21 weeks - 55 mm;
22 week - 59 mm.
3) Bipariental head size. This allows you to make sure whether the baby has such malformations as hydrocephalus, anencephaly, cystic formations.
Week 18 - 42-43 mm;
Week 19 - 44-46 mm;
20 week - 47-50 mm;
21 weeks - 51-53 mm;
22 weeks - 54-56 mm.;
4) The thickness of the occipital bone allows you to finally discard the suspicion of Down syndrome (if its thickness is not more than 5 mm).
During this ultrasound, the sex of the child is very clearly established, both by its genitals and based on body size (in boys and girls, the proportions are slightly different). The doctor must carefully examine the internal organs of the baby and his limbs, how they are located, formed and act.
During an ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound is also performed (popularly called a Doppler). This is a study of blood flow in the vessels of the uterus, umbilical cord, placenta and baby. Normal Doppler readings are a sign that the child's development is currently proceeding well, although some complications in the future are not excluded.
Therefore, Doppler is usually performed at every ultrasound, especially after 30 weeks. And if there are any doubts about the development of the placenta, the amount of amniotic fluid, the compliance of the gestation period with the size of the baby, or the mother has a history of diabetes, kidney disease or anemia, then the Doppler is done without fail.
19 weeks - 20 weeks - 21 weeks