Oldest countries


There are more than 250 countries in the world today. After all, each nation has its own myths and legends about the timing of the emergence of the state.

For example, the legends of San Marino say that in 301, a member of one of the first Christian communities created a refuge for himself on the top of Mount Titano. However, the independence of this settlement can be talked about only from the 6th century, when Italy split into many independent states.

Japanese legends say that the country was founded in 660 BC, but history knows about the first state on the island - Yamato. However, the country in its present form received complete independence only in 1821, after seceding from the Ottoman Empire.

That is why, to compile such a rating, those forms of organization of society that correspond to the modern features of the state were taken into account. Our list includes those states that exist on the modern map of the world.

Elam, 3200 BC e. (Iran). This modern state is located in southwestern Asia. The Islamic Republic of Iran appeared on the political map of the planet on April 1, 1979 during the Islamic Revolution. However, the history of the statehood of this country is one of the most ancient in the world. For centuries, the states that have been here have played a key role in the East. For the first time on the territory of Iran, the country appeared in 3200 BC, it was called Elam. The resulting Persian Empire stretched from Greece and Libya to the Indus River. In the Middle Ages, Persia was a powerful influential state.

Egypt, 3000 This is the most ancient state on the planet, the history of which is rich in interesting facts. The mysterious and mysterious land of the pharaohs became the homeland for many types and forms of art, which then spread throughout Europe and Asia. It was from here that antique aesthetics originated, which formed the basis of all modern arts. Egypt is the largest country in the Arab East, it is one of the centers of the political and cultural life of the region. For tourists, the country is a real Mecca. The location of Egypt is unique - it is located at the junction of three continents - Africa, Europe and Asia. Here two worlds collide - Christian and Islamic. Egypt appeared on the site of a mysterious and powerful ancient civilization, the history of which goes back centuries and millennia. The state appeared here in 3000 BC, when Pharaoh Minnes united several lands and created a new country. Egyptologists christened it the Early Kingdom. Traces of that era have come down to us in the form of the Great Egyptian pyramids, the mysterious Sphinxes and the imposing temples of the pharaohs.

Vanlang, 2897 (Vietnam). This country is located in Southeast Asia, on the Indochina Peninsula. The name of the state consists of two words, translated as "the country of the Vieta in the South." The Vieta civilization appeared in the Red River basin. Legends say that the people descended from a dragon and a fairy bird. The very first state on the territory of present-day Vietnam appeared in 2897 BC. For a long time, Vietnam was part of China. Since the middle of the 19th century, the country has been a French colony. It was only in the summer of 1954 that Vietnam gained independence.

Shang-Yin, 1600 (China). China is located in East Asia, the largest country in the world in terms of population. It is home to over 1.3 billion people. In terms of the area of ​​its territory, China is second only to Russia and Canada. The local civilization is one of the oldest in the world. Chinese scientists claim that it is more than five thousand years old. But written sources testify only to 3,500 years of history. China has long established an administrative management system. New and new dynasties of rulers only improved it. Thus, the Chinese state with an economy based on developed agriculture gained an advantage over its more backward neighbors, nomads and mountaineers. The country became even stronger with the introduction of Confucianism as a state ideology in the 1st century BC, as well as a unified writing system a century earlier. 1600 to 1207 BC on the territory of present-day China there was a Shang-Yin state. This is the first state formation in these places, the history of which is actually confirmed by both archaeological finds and narrative, epigraphic written evidence. In 221 BC. Emperor Qin Shi Huang was able to unite all Chinese lands, creating the Qin Empire. Its borders roughly correspond to modern China.

Kush, 1070 (Sudan). The area of ​​the modern state of Sudan, located in northeastern Africa, is comparable to the whole of Western Europe. The country's population is 29.5 million. The country is located in the middle reaches of the Nile, on the plains surrounding the great river, plateau and the adjacent coast of the Red Sea. In the northern part of modern Sudan from 1070 to 350 BC. there was the ancient state of Kush, or the Meroite kingdom. Remains of temples, sculptures of its kings and gods speak about this state. It is believed that at that time astronomy, medicine and writing were already developed in Kush.

Sri Lanka, 377 AD The name of this island state is translated as Blessed Land. The country is located in South Asia, near the southeast coast of India. The history of the life of people here dates back to the Neolithic, the first settlements discovered here belong to this period. Written history dates back to the arrival of the Aryans here from India. They gave the local population the first knowledge of metallurgy, navigation and writing. In 247 BC. Buddhism appeared on the island, which had an important influence on the formation of the country and the state system. Even earlier, in 377 BC. the first kingdom appeared in Sri Lanka, the capital of which was located in the ancient city of Anuradhapura.

Chin, 300 (Democratic People's Republic of Korea and Republic of Korea). Korea is a geographic area based on the Korean Peninsula and the adjacent islands. All of them are united by cultural and historical heritage. But once it was a single state. When Japan was defeated in World War II in 1945, Korea, a former colony, was artificially divided into two parts of responsibility. North of the 38th parallel lay the Soviet, and south - the American. In 1948, two countries appeared on the territory of these fragments - the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the north and the Republic of Korea in the south. Local legends say that the first Korean state was created by the son of a celestial and a female bear, Tangun, which happened back in 2333 BC. Scientists consider the earliest stage of Korean history to be the period of the state of Ko Choson. Modern historians still believe that the date is 2333 BC. is greatly exaggerated, since no documents confirm it. And it appeared on the basis of Korean chronicles that arose already in the Middle Ages. At the beginning of its existence, Ancient Joseon was a union of tribes, the country existed in the form of separate independent city-states. Only in 300 BC. a centralized state appeared. At the same time, the proto-state of Chin appeared in the south of the state.

Iberia, 299 (Georgia). Modern Georgia appears as a young and dynamically developing independent state that has almost completely got rid of the Soviet legacy. The history of statehood here originates deeply in antiquity. Georgia is one of the places where the most ancient monuments of our civilization were found. Historians believe that the first countries on the territory of Georgia appeared 4-5 thousand years ago. On the eastern coast of the Black Sea was the Kingdom of Colchis, and on the territory of modern Georgia - Iberia. In 299, the legendary king Farnavaz I came to power in this country. During the reign of him and his descendants, Iberia became a powerful state, subjugating significant lands. And in the 9th century, a new united country appeared on the territory of Georgia. Its ruler was a king from the Bagrationi dynasty.

Great Armenia, 190 (Armenia). For the first time, there are references to the existence of this country in the cuneiforms of the king of Persia Darius I. He ruled in 522-486 BC. Herodotus and Xenophon (5th century BC) also testify to Armenia. Ancient historians and geographers marked this state on maps along with Persia, Syria and other ancient countries. When the empire of Alexander the Great collapsed, three Armenian kingdoms at once appeared in place of its fragments - Great Armenia, Little Armenia and Sophena. The first of them turned out to be a fairly large state, which united the lands from Palestine to the Caspian Sea itself. The country appeared in 190 BC, scientists consider it to be the first in history that existed on the territory of modern Armenia.

Yamato, 250 (Japan). Japan is an important island nation in East Asia. It is located on the lands of the Japanese archipelago of the Pacific Ocean, numbering 6852 islands. Local legends say that as early as 660 BC. Emperor Jimmu founded the Land of the Rising Sun, becoming its first ruler. The very first written evidence of the existence of ancient Japan as a unified state is found in the historical chronicles of the 1st century of the Chinese Han Empire. In the vault of the Wei Empire already in the III century, it is said about 30 countries on the territory of the Japanese Islands, the most powerful of which is Yamatai. Legends say that ruler Himiko ruled there using her magic. During the Kofun period from 250 to 358, the Yamato state appeared in Japan, apparently a confederal one. And this era is called "kofun" thanks to the eponymous kurgan culture. It has been common in Japan for five centuries. For example, the Daisenry mound in the 5th century became the tomb for Emperor Nintoku.

Great Bulgaria, 632 (Bulgaria). This country is located in the east of the Balkan Peninsula, in Southeast Europe. There is evidence that on the territory of the state there was such a union of peoples as Great Bulgaria. It included the tribes of the Proto-Bulgarians and existed in the steppes of the Black Sea and Azov for several decades from 632 to 671. The capital of this country was the city of Phanagoria, and Khan Kubrat founded it, becoming the first ruler. Thus began the history of Bulgaria as a state.


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