Many believe that the process of forming surnames has long been completed and all of them are recorded in official documents. However, in practice, it turns out that new surnames do exist.
Immediately you need to decide which names can be called new. Here you need to take into account several facts in the history of the formation of surnames:
surnames as unofficial nicknames have existed presumably since the XIV century, or even earlier;
by the 18th century, certain traditions of the origin of Russian surnames had already developed;
in the 19th century, the first need to officially register surnames arises (first in 1874 when recruiting persons liable for military service, and then in 1897 during the census);
in the XX century, surnames are already mandatory assigned to all citizens of the state.
New surnames arose at each of these stages, but some of them arose naturally. Hereditary surnames were formed from names and nicknames.
In the 19th century, people began to artificially invent surnames, which the Oxford linguist B.O. Unbegaun called them - artificial. They can be called new at each of the stages listed, since they are knocked out of the traditions of forming surnames in a natural way and are the product of human word creation.
Since the 19th century, for a variety of reasons, unique surnames have appeared in Russia, invented by the people themselves in order to stand out from the crowd. Some of them subsequently began to be inherited by descendants and were entrenched in the Russian language, some have sunk into oblivion, surviving only in single copies. Among the artificial surnames of the 19th century, several groups can be distinguished.
1. Seminary surnames.
It was believed that everything in a priest should inspire respect and awe in people: behavior, character, lifestyle, and even ... a surname. Here's what to do if Vodopyanov or Potseluikin entered the seminary? How will a priest with such a surname preach morality and purity to people? So they changed the names of the seminarians to more euphonic ones. What guided the future priests when choosing a new surname? The basis of such surnames most often lay:
church holidays: Christmas, Epiphany, Assumption;
Latin translation of Russian surnames: Anserov instead of Gusev (anser is translated from Latin as a goose), Kastorsky instead of Bobrov (a beaver in Latin sounds like castor);
the Greek translation of Russian surnames: Alektor instead of Petukhov (a cock in translation into Greek sounded like an Alector), Lofitsky instead of Kholmsky (a hill in Greek is lofia);
the geographical names of the settlements in which the priests received their parishes and served: Belinsky (the famous critic's grandfather was a priest and served in the village of Belyn);
biblical names: Gethsemane (Gethsemane), Saul (King Saul);
plant names: Tsvetkovsky, Landyshev;
animals and birds: Lvov, Lebedev.
2. Surnames of illegitimate children.
Children born out of wedlock have always been born in any society. Now there is no problem to write down such a child in the name of the father or mother, even if they are not registered. Things were completely different in the 19th century. Giving a child the surname of an eminent father meant to tarnish his noble honor with this forbidden connection. It was a pity to be abandoned to the mercy of fate in peasant poverty. A solution was found: the child was given a surname, which was a truncated form of the father's surname: Vorntsov - Rontsov; Golitsin - Litsyn; Dolgorukov - Rukin; Potemkin - Tyomkin; Repni - Pnin.
3. Author's pseudonyms.
Russian literature flourished in the 19th century, writers and poets are gaining popularity, some of whom are forced to take pseudonyms: either they did not want to reveal their true identity to readers, or the surname did not sound in public. One way or another, but some of the pseudonyms became new surnames that were subsequently fixed in the Russian language: Prutkov; Shchedrin.
4. Surnames of literary heroes.
With the flourishing of literary creativity, many names of literary heroes appeared. Subsequently, some of them were borrowed for the nameless conscripts who were recruited to serve in 1874: Gloom-Grumblev; Prishibeev; Skvoznik-Dmukhanovsky; Pechorin; Onegin.
5. Special cases of the formation of new surnames.
Sometimes the nobles liked to show their generosity and handed out sonorous surnames to their serfs and lackeys: Vozhzhinsky, Kucherov, Livery, Kitchen, Maid;
In the event of victories and special merits, nobles were given honorary prefixes to surnames, as a result of which double surnames were formed: Orlov-Chesmensky, Suvorov-Rymniksky, Potemkin-Tavrichesky.
The 20th century is already more cautious in inventing new surnames, however, even here it was not without word-creation.
In 1932, a total certification was carried out in Russia, when absolutely everyone received officially confirmed surnames. At that time, not everyone had surnames, especially rural residents. As a result, it was necessary to come up with new surnames on the go and fix them in the passport. Many of them were already known and widespread, but there were also such cases when human imagination gave birth to the most unusual surnames:
monosyllabic: El, Ro, Od, Yar, Yuk;
three-letter: Ship, Chan, Guzh, Kus, Kaz, Som;
equal to common nouns: Mushroom, Eye, Evening;
in honor of literary heroes: Sharikov, Koroviev.
2. Author's pseudonyms.
The replenishment of surnames from this group of names is especially characteristic of the beginning of the 20th century, when it was fashionable in literary circles to take symbolic names for themselves, which were often attached to people and became new surnames: Gorky, Chukovsky, Gaidar, Utyosov.
3. Ideological surnames.
After the revolution, communism welcomed the spread of new ideas of revolution and Soviet power. It was very fashionable to give children unusual names, which basically carried the propaganda of such ideas. This also affected the names: Oktyabrinsky; Revolutionary; Tractors; Leninist.
Now it is almost impossible to come up with a new surname and fix it: the registry office will ask you for objective reasons for changing the surname. Only those cases are welcomed when the surname of a relative is taken, which is confirmed by the relevant documents.
However, no one guarantees that in the very near future in Russia there will be no surnames corresponding to new trends: Refrigerators, Spam, Displays, Computers, etc. At this stage, new surnames are replenished mainly in two directions:
1. Author's pseudonyms: Sparrow (Elena Lebenbaum); Bilan (Dmitry Belan); Allegrova (Irina Klimchuk).
2. Surnames of literary characters and heroes of films: Fandorin; Susloparov; Shvabramovich.
Language does not stand still, it is constantly evolving, adjusting to the changes that are taking place in society. New surnames will be created constantly, responding to the historical and linguistic trends of the era.