Science is inconceivable without experience and practical research. Here are twenty of the most striking ones.
Some experiments are striking in their cruelty, and some are simply shocking with the results. One thing is for sure, the field of human activity is truly unlimited, so we should expect new unusual experiments and results.
Elephants under the influence of LSD. A group of researchers wondered what would happen to elephants if they were under the influence of hallucinogenic substances? And so, on August 3, 1962, a group of scientists from Oklahoma City decided to do this strange experiment. The director of the local zoo, Warren Thomas, gave an elephant an injection with which he injected 297 milligrams of LSD into Taxco the elephant. Scientists from the University of Louis West Medical School and Chester Pierce watched the experiment. It should be noted that the dose itself is quite large, it exceeds the usual human dose by 3000 times. So far, this amount of drug has remained the largest ever administered to an animal. According to the researchers, it was this amount of LSD that had to be injected into the elephant to get the effect, the dose should not be small. Scientists later explained that the purpose of the experiment was to find out if a substance would induce the so-called must state in an elephant. With him, male elephants feel like intoxication and insanity, a sticky liquid is released from their temporal glands. However, they were most likely driven by perverse curiosity. However, the reasons for the experiment are no longer so important, he himself immediately went wrong. Taxco reacted to the injection as if he had been stung by a bee - he bellowed in his pen for a few minutes, and then fell on his side, and an hour later, despite the efforts of the experimenters, died. Scientists have come to the timid conclusion that elephants have an overly high susceptibility to LSD. In the following years, there was a long debate about what exactly killed the elephant - the drug itself or the drugs with which they tried to save the animal. Twenty years later, Ronald Siegel at the University of California decided to settle the dispute by giving a similar dose to two other elephants. However, the scientist had to give written consent to replace the elephants in the event of their death. Siegel avoided injecting the substance by injection, instead giving the elephants an LSD solution with water. After drinking the liquid, the elephants not only did not die, but did not express any unusual signs of distress. The animals behaved sluggishly, swayed and made strange sounds like screeching. After a few hours, the animals returned to their normal state. Siegel noted that the dose taken by Taxco may have exceeded the toxicity threshold, so that death could have occurred due to the use of LSD. Disputes on this topic in narrow circles continue to this day.
Obedience research. Imagine that you have become a voluntary participant in some psychological experiment. But in the laboratory, the researcher reports that it is required that you kill an innocent person. Naturally, you will refuse, and he will insist, referring to the consent of the participant in the experiments to obey any instructions. Most people, analyzing such a situation, are convinced that they would never agree to such a terrible action. However, in the early 1960s, Stanley Milgram conducted an interesting and famous experiment on obedience, which showed that not everything is so simple and optimistic about this issue. It turns out that the "correct" sounding of the request leads to the fact that almost each of the participants will obey and thus become a murderer. Milgram informed all of the subjects that they would become participants in an experiment that seeks to determine how punishment promotes learning. One of the volunteers was actually a dummy actor and he had to memorize a series of words. The real test subject must propose phrases for memorization and each time in case of an error punish the student with an electric shock. Each wrong answer added an additional 15 volts to the discharge. And so the experiment began, the student gave the wrong answers, the discharge power quickly increased to 120 volts. The participant began to shout that he was in pain, when the discharge reached 150 volts, the student demanded because of the pain to stop the experiment and his release. This confused the volunteers, and they asked the researcher what they should do. To which Milgram calmly confirmed that the conditions of the experiments imply the continuation of the experiments. The scientist was absolutely not interested in training and its connection with punishment, he was interested in finding out how long people would press the button and send a shock. Will they be able to stop in time or will they continue to obey the authority of the researcher, sending all new discharges. Surprisingly, the heart-rending screams of the student, coming from the next room, did not confuse most of the volunteers, two-thirds of them continued to send shocks until the last moment, when the voltage reached 450 volts, and the victim was frighteningly silent, faking death. At the same time, the subjects laughed nervously, their sweating increased, but they continued to press the button. The fact that in the absence of life reactions from the student, the volunteers were ready to send almost everything and then even more powerful discharges, looked frightening. Based on his observations of thousands of participants, Milgram was bitterly forced to state that if concentration camps for some reason appeared in the United States, and not in Germany, there would be no shortage of suitable personnel for them.
Creation of a two-headed dog. In 1954, the scientific world was shocked by the news that a monster dog was surgically created by Vladimir Demikhov. On the outskirts of Moscow, the scientist transplanted the head, shoulders and apron of a puppy's paw onto the neck of an adult German shepherd. This dog was shown to journalists from all over the world. Surprisingly, both heads could lap the liquid at the same time, but when it began to flow out of the puppy's head through the cut esophageal tube, the dog shrank with fear. This achievement was immediately used by the Soviet Union for political purposes, as proof of the superiority of our medicine. Demikhov continued his experiments, for fifteen years he created about twenty two-headed dogs. For obvious reasons, none of them lived for a long time, the creatures died due to tissue rejection. The record lifespan of the monster was one month. According to the scientist, these experiments became part of experiments in the field of surgery, the main goal of which was to be the implantation of human hearts and lungs. This goal was achieved in 1967 by another physician, Christian Baarnard, who nevertheless admitted that it was Demikhov's work that paved the way for his results.
Stimulation of heterosexual behavior in gay men. In 1954, James Olds and Peter Milner of McGill University discovered that the septal part of the brain is responsible for the well-being of a person. If this place is stimulated with electrical impulses, then a feeling of intense pleasure will be caused, and the person will be sexually aroused. The discovery was first demonstrated in rats with a wire connected to their brains. When the animal realized that it could stimulate itself by simply pressing the lever, it pressed the lever with manic persistence at a speed of up to two thousand beats per minute. This discovery was exploited in 1970 by Robert Heath of Tulane University. The scientist decided to find out whether it is possible to repeatedly stimulate the septal zone to help the transformation of a homosexual into a heterosexual man. The subject was named "Patient B-19", two electrodes were inserted into the septal area of the brain, and during the experimental sessions, controlled exposure to this area was carried out. After a while, the man reported an increase in sexual motivation. Heath then assembled a device that allowed the subject to stimulate himself. Quite quickly, the I-19 joined the pleasure. During the three-hour session, the man pressed the pleasure button fifteen hundred times, euphoria seized him, and the experiment had to be suspended. At this stage of the experiment, the subject's libido was already so inflated that the scientist moved on to the final stage, during which a woman was introduced who wanted to have sex with B-19. She was a 21-year-old prostitute, Heath sought special permission from the authorities to participate in the experiment. An hour later, nothing happened between the man and the woman who were in the same room, then the prostitute took the initiative into her own hands, and sexual intercourse took place. According to Heath, this can be considered a positive result. Little is known about what will happen to the patient. According to the scientist, the young man returned to his previous occupations of homosexual prostitution, but for some time he had an affair with a married woman. This, according to the optimistic researcher, indicates a partial success of the experiment. However, Heath no longer tried to remake homosexuals.
The life of a separate dog head. It turns out that the experiment to create a two-headed dog is not yet the worst thing that a person can do with an animal. Scientists have long, since the French Revolution, when the guillotine sent thousands of heads to baskets, wondered if it was possible to make the head live separately from the body. In 1920, such an experiment was carried out by the Soviet physiologist Sergei Bryukhonenko. He created a primitive heart-lung machine, which was named "auto-light". With this device, the scientist was able to maintain life in a dog's head, separated from the body. One of these heads was demonstrated at the Third Congress of USSR Physiologists in 1928. To prove the life of the head, Bryukhonenko hit the table with a hammer, which caused a startle, and the dog's eyes also reacted to the light. The physiologist even fed a piece of cheese to his head, which fell out of the esophageal tube at the other end. This experience has generated a lot of discussion throughout Europe. The great Bernard Shaw even said on this occasion: “I am attracted to the idea of having my own head cut off, and I could continue to dictate plays and books without worrying about illness, without having to dress and undress, eat, and do anything yet, in addition to creating masterpieces of drama and literature. "
Creation of a hybrid of ape and humans. Rumors of conducting such experiments in the USSR had been circulating for a long time, and when the archives with the collapse of the country were opened, it became known that attempts were actually made to create a hybrid of a man and a monkey by crossing with chimpanzees. In order to implement the plan in 1927, Dr. Ilya Ivanov, who was a world famous in the field of veterinary reproduction biology, was sent to Africa. However, the scientist dreamed of doing something more than just breeding cows, so he agreed to participate in the experiment. However, Ivanov's works were not crowned with success, in many respects "thanks" to the staff of the research center of Western Guinea, where the experiments were carried out. The fact is that the scientist constantly had to hide the true purpose of his stay there. Ivanov's diary says that the news of the experiment could lead to the most sad and unpredictable consequences. Therefore, strong secrecy and prevented from doing anything, nevertheless, the doctor described two attempts to artificially inseminate a female monkey with human sperm. Ivanov was disappointed, but he returned to his homeland with an orangutan named Tarzan, obviously hoping to continue his research already here, in a more suitable environment. It turned out that for the experiment there were even women volunteers who agreed to carry the child from Tarzan. But soon the orangutan died, and the scientist himself was sent to the camps. And so these studies ended. According to rumors, the explorations were later continued by other scientists, but no evidence of this was ever found.
The Stanford Prison Experiment. Researcher Philip Zimbardo was interested in the question, why is there always violence in prisons? Is this connected with the character of the inhabitants themselves, or is the very power structure of such establishments to blame for this? To clarify this issue, Zimbardo created something like a prison in the basement of Stanford University. The group of volunteers consisted entirely of nice young guys, none of them had previously been convicted, psychological tests also confirmed their normal nature. The groups were randomly divided into "guards" and "prisoners". The researcher's plan was to simply observe the interaction between the participants and how they would fulfill their roles for two weeks. The rest has literally become a legend. In the "prison" social conditions began to deteriorate at an astonishing rate. On the very first night, a riot was played out, and the guards, seeing the insubordination of the prisoners, brutally suppressed the protests. At the same time, the most sophisticated actions were used to influence the prisoners - random searches with complete undressing, curtailment of rights to use the toilet, deprivation of food and sleep, and simply verbal abuse. Such pressure led to a quick breakdown of the prisoners' morals. The first of them left the prison after 36 hours, as he began to feel that he seemed to be on fire from the inside. The next six days led to the refusal to participate in the experiments of 4 more prisoners, one of them even covered his whole body with a rash due to stress. It became obvious that the participants in the experiment quickly tried on new roles, forgetting that this was a game. Even Zimbardo himself was subjected to the decomposing atmosphere of the situation. Soon, under the influence of paranoid fears that the prisoners were plotting an escape, he turned to the real police. It was then that the scientist realized how far he had gone. After just 6 days of experience, the gay college students became morose prisoners and sadistic guards. The experiment was ended immediately, and the students were dismissed to their homes. It is curious that the "prisoners" breathed a sigh of relief, while the "guards", on the contrary, were upset. After all, they liked the acquired power so much that they did not want to part with it at all.
Correspondence of facial expressions and emotions. In 1924, Carney Landis, a student at the University of Minnesota, conducted an experiment to find out if emotions can cause characteristic facial expressions. For example, is there a common facial expression that we all use to express shock or disgust? Almost all of the subjects studied with Carney in the same course. The researcher took the students to the laboratory and drew lines on their faces to make muscle movements more visible. Then the subjects were exposed to various stimuli, which aimed to create the maximum psychological response, during which people were photographed. Students were asked to sniff ammonia, look at obscene photographs, and dip their hand into a bucket of slippery frogs. The apotheosis of the experiment was the request to decapitate a live white rat lying on a tray. At first, almost everyone refused to do so, but two-thirds of the people eventually agreed to comply with this request.Landis noted that most of them performed this task rather awkwardly, trying to get the job done as quickly as possible, and the subjects delayed this work. For those who refused to decapitate the rat at all, Landis did the job himself. First of all, this experiment demonstrated with what an amazing desire people participate in strange experiments, while fulfilling all the requirements. Milgram's experiments with obedience were still forty years old. Landis then did not understand that the very fact of the subjects' consent to participate in the program was no less interesting than the study of their facial expressions. The researcher purposefully walked towards his original goal, although in the end he could not compare facial expressions and emotions. It turned out that different people expressing the same emotions still have different facial expressions, even the same disgust caused by the decapitation of a rat is accompanied by different facial expressions.
Drinking someone else's vomit. Many researchers are ready to take the most unexpected steps to prove their theory. One of them was the medical student Stubbins Firth, who lived in Philadelphia in the 19th century. He observed through observations that yellow fever was rampant in summer and disappeared in winter. Therefore, the student decided, this disease is not contagious. According to his theory, the disease arose from too many stimuli - food, heat, noise. In order to confirm his theory, Firff showed that he could not get yellow fever, no matter how he wanted - the researcher even made small cuts on his hands and poured fresh vomit from patients over them. Then Firff began to bury the vomit in his eyes, he continued by inhaling its vapors. The next step on the path of the experience was the ingestion of a pill made from vomit, eventually the student began to drink whole glasses of clean and undiluted black vomit. And this still did not lead to his illness. Firff spent the end of the experiment working on other fluids tainted by yellow fever - blood, sweat, urine and saliva. In the end, remaining healthy, the researcher announced a successful proof of his theory. However, life has proven him wrong. Yellow fever is actually contagious, but it requires it to enter the bloodstream directly. Mosquitoes usually transmit the disease. However, given all the experiences that Firff put on himself to get infected, the very fact that he survived is a real miracle.
Brainwashing for healing purposes. One day, Dr. Ewen Cameron decided that he had found a drug that could cure schizophrenia. In his opinion, the patient's brain can be reprogrammed in such a way that it begins to work as healthy, and this can be done with the help of imposed speculative models. The doctor's method was for patients to wear headphones for several days in a row and listen to audio messages in a circle. Such psychic introductions could last even for weeks. Journalists also called this method brainwashing. Cameron's unwitting experimental subjects in the 1950s and 60s of the 20th century were hundreds of patients at the Allan Memorial Clinic in Montreal, some of whom did not suffer from schizophrenia. Someone went to the hospital with anxiety due to menopause, they were stuffed with sedatives, tied to the bed and forced to listen to phrases for days about how they are loved and how confident they are. To test his method, Cameron once put the patients to sleep with drugs and made them listen to the phrase that it was necessary to pick up a piece of paper from the ground. Then the doctor took the patients to the gym, where a piece of paper lay on the floor. The researcher was pleased to note that many patients spontaneously approached and picked up paper from the floor. The CIA soon became interested in such experiments, which even secretly funded this program. However, over time, the scouts realized that the method was not producing the desired results, the allocation of funds stopped, and the doctor was made to understand that his ten-year experiments were "a journey in the wrong direction." As a result, in the late 70s, a group of former Cameron patients filed a lawsuit against the CIA for supporting the experiments, but a certain undisclosed amount paid to the victims led to a settlement agreement.
Monkey head transplant. The 1954 experiments of Vladimir Melikhov with two-headed dogs gave rise to a kind of "surgical arms race" between the USSR and the USA. The Americans naturally tried in every possible way to prove that their surgeons were the best. This is why the government agreed to fund the Robert White project. The result was a series of experimental surgeries at the Cleveland Brain Research Center, culminating in the successful monkey head transplant. The event took place on March 14, 1970, a carefully planned event that required several hours of work by the doctor and his assistants. During the operation, the head of one monkey was removed from the body and transplanted into a new body. When the animal woke up, it found that its body had changed, so the monkey angrily watched people and clicked its teeth at the same time. Complications from the operation did not allow the animal to live longer than a day and a half, White said that it would be easier to transplant the head back than fight for life. The scientist thought that the public would welcome the experiments and their results, but they, on the contrary, scared and horrified everyone. However, this did not stop the researcher, he launched an entire campaign to raise funds for a human head transplant operation. Even the first volunteer for this operation was found - the paralyzed Kreg Vetovits. Today, the public still does not accept the idea of a human head transplant, although Robert White, Cleveland's leading neurosurgeon, is still trying to realize his idea, looking for like-minded people and helpers.
Remote control of the bull. Once upon a time, casual viewers could see the following spectacle. José Delgado, a Yale University researcher, stood in the bullring under the blazing sun. There was also a huge angry bull. So he saw a man and rushed to the attack with increasing speed. It seemed that the scientist would suffer a terrible fate, but as soon as the bull approached Jose, he pressed a button on the remote control in his hands. Thus, a signal was sent to the chip implanted in the animal's brain. The bull stopped abruptly, snorted, and obediently went home. This was a demonstration of how behavior can be controlled using a device called the stimosiver. This is a computer chip that can be controlled remotely using a remote control, while causing electrical effects on various areas of the animal's brain. Such stimulation could manifest itself in a variety of limb movements or the manifestation of emotions, possibly suppression of appetite. In this experiment, it became possible to stop the angry bull. Although such an experiment is still similar to science fiction, it was carried out back in 1963. In the 70s and 80s, research in this area (electrical stimulation of the brain) was noticeably weakened by the public, which condemned the attempt to control human consciousness. However, research has not completely stopped, recently, news has begun to appear about remotely controlled pigeons, rats and even sharks.
Raising a monkey child by man. There are many examples in history when animals raised human children. In most cases, children, alas, continued to behave the same way, even after returning to human society. Psychologist Winthrop Kellogg decided to check what happens if the situation is turned 180 degrees? What happens if an animal is raised by a person like his own child? Will in such a situation, over time, the animal will be able to acquire any of our habits? To test this question, Kellogg brought home a seven-month-old female chimpanzee named Gua in 1931. The researcher had a nine-month-old son, Donald, therefore, together with his wife, he began to raise the monkey on a par with the child. Gua played and ate with Donald, while the scientist and his wife conducted regular tests, observing the development of the babies. For example, using a cookie hanging from a string in the middle of the room was used to measure the time it took children to get the treat. Although the monkey did much better than Donald on such tasks, her language skills disappointed the scientist. Repeated attempts never resulted in Gua's speechlessness. The couple became concerned about the fact that Donald, too, seemed to be losing this ability. Nine months after the start of the experiment, the toddler's language skills were not much better than that of the monkey. The moment Donald began to communicate his desire to eat with the characteristic barking of a monkey, Kellogg and his wife decided it was time to stop the experiment. It became clear that for the games and development, Donald needed partners from him, the human species. On March 28, 1932, Gua was sent to the primate center and was never heard from again.
Suggestion in a dream about the terrible taste of nails. In a dark hut in a rural New York suburb in the summer of 1942, Professor Lawrence Leshan stood beside sleeping teenage boys and said, "My nails taste terribly bitter. My nails taste terribly bitter." Today, this behavior seems to be a mental disorder, but no, the scientist was not sick. He was conducting a sleep learning experiment. The fact is that the boys had a chronic and bad habit of biting their nails, while Leshan wanted to know if such a night effect on the psyche of children would help with a negative statement. Perhaps this will help wean them from their bad habit? At first, the scientist reproduced the message using a phonograph, which repeated the phrase 300 times during the night, while everyone was asleep. However, a month later the phonograph broke down, so the persistent professor decided to pronounce this phrase himself, bringing the experiment to the end. When Leshan examined his nails at the end of the summer, he found that about 40% of the children had gotten rid of the addiction. It would seem that this method really worked! However, this opinion was later challenged by other scholars. In 1956, a similar experiment was conducted at Santa Monica College by other researchers, Charles Simon and William Emmons. However, an electroencephalograph was used, which made it possible to make sure that the subjects actually fell asleep before starting to play the message with suggestion. It turned out that under such conditions, the entire effect of learning disappeared altogether.
Exposure to electric shock on human corpses. In the late 18th century, an Italian professor of anatomy, Luigi Galvani, discovered that when an electric shock was applied to the limbs of a frog, they began to twitch. This experiment soon became so popular that it began to spread throughout Europe, but soon the researchers were bored with only frogs. It is quite reasonable that more interesting animals, as well as humans, came to the attention of researchers. What will happen to his corpse if an electric current is passed through it? Galvani's nephew, Giovanni Aldini, began to travel across the continent and invite people to watch the terrifying sight. The most famous demonstration took place on January 17, 1803. The poles of a 120-volt battery were connected to the body of the previously executed murderer, George Foster. When the contacts were placed on the ear and mouth, the dead man's face began to writhing in pain, and the muscles of the jaw twitch at the same time. The left eye opened slightly, as if George was trying to look at the one who tortured him after death. At the end of the show, Aldini put one wire in the corpse's rectum and connected the other to the ear. As a result, the dead man performed a hideous dance. Here is what the London Times wrote about this: "To the uninformed part of the public it might have seemed that the unfortunate man was about to come to life." Another line of research in this area was devoted to attempts to resurrect the dead with the help of an electric current, but there was no success by itself. Obviously, it was these experiments that inspired Mary Shelley to write the legendary novel about Frankenstein in 1816.
An attempt to look at the world through the eyes of another living being. In 1999, Assistant Professor of Neuroscience Young Dan of the University of California, Berkeley, conducted a curious experiment. Researchers under his leadership anesthetized the cat with sodium pentothal, then the animal was immobilized with Norkuron and firmly fixed on the operating table. Metal clips were connected to the whites of the cat's eyes, then the animal was forced to look at a screen that constantly showed swaying trees and a man with a high collar and a sweater. The experiment was not at all a Clockwork Orange aversion therapy, and it was not intended to create aversion to anything. Thus, the researchers tried to penetrate the brain of another creature and find out how it looks at the world. Fibrous electrodes were inserted into the center of the cat's brain, which was processing the image. Scientists measured the electrical activity of brain cells, then transmitting the information to a computer. This data was decrypted and converted into an image. As a result, when the cat saw images of trees and a person on the screen, the same, only slightly blurred, images appeared on the computer screen. This technology has tremendous commercial potential. Many people are amazed at the opportunity to see the picture from the mini-camera installed on the helmet of the American football league player, but you can see the picture with someone else's eyes. Or you won't need more cameras at all, since you can shoot by simply blinking your eyes. But such an invasion of the brain is fraught with disruptions in the further work of the body.
Sex drive research in turkeys. It turns out that turkeys are not picky at all, they are ready to mate even with a natural-looking stuffed little idea, while with no less zeal, as usual. This fact interested scientists Martin Shane and Edgar Hale, representing the University of Pennsylvania. People decided to find out what the minimum stimulus turkeys need to induce sexual desire in them. In the course of the experiment, from a stuffed turkey, one part after another was successively removed until the turkey lost interest in the lady. Even after the tail, legs and wings were removed, the stupid bird continued to approach the stuffed animal and try to mate with it. Even when only one head was left on the stick, the turkey showed interest in it. However, in reality it turned out that the bird prefers a head on a stick to a decapitated body. Hale and Shane then decided to figure out how accurately the head had to be drawn in order to maintain the turkey attraction. The best effect was the effect of fresh female heads, recently chopped off and impaled on sticks. However, the bird, for lack of other options, was content with a simple head made of cork. Probably the turkeys believe that if there is no way to live with the one you love, then you must love the one who is next to you. Also, the researchers conducted experiments to study the sexual behavior of other domestic birds, in particular on white leghorns, a variety of chickens. The results were published in an article with the pretentious title "The effect of morphological variations in a stuffed chicken on the sex drive of roosters."
An offer from a stranger to have sex.On the campus of the University of Florida in 1978, an attractive young girl approached the men and declared her sympathy and readiness to have sex with this man literally on the same day. Many "lucky ones" were upset to learn that they were just the object of an experiment conducted by psychologist Russell Clarke. The scientist asked students attending his lectures on social psychology to help them learn about which gender in such a situation would be more inclined to accept a tempting and direct offer from a stranger. The only way was - to go outside and see how things went. So the students and students dispersed around the university, pestering strangers with obscene proposals. The results are hardly surprising. Three-quarters of the guys happily agreed to the proposal of the stranger, while those who refused usually explained this by the presence of a permanent girlfriend or wife. But an attractive man could not at all get the consent of any of the women to meet him in an intimate setting. The ladies demanded ultimately to be left alone. At first, serious psychologists regarded such an experiment as a banal joke, but soon Clark received recognition and even praise for his experiment, which so effectively showed how differently men and women relate to sex. Now this experiment is considered to be a classic one. But the reason for the appearance of such a serious difference in attitudes towards sex is still being discussed by scientists.
Electrocution of the puppy. In 1963, the aforementioned results of Stanley Milgram's obedience research were published and shocked the entire scientific community. It seemed to scientists that it was impossible to manipulate people so easily, they tried to find mistakes that were made when setting up the experiment. Charles Sheridan and Richard King suggested that the subjects simply followed the rules of the experiment, realizing that the screams of the victim could not be real. That is why these two scientists decided to repeat the experiment, significantly changing it. Now there was no actor, the victim of electrical discharges was real. Of course, it would be too much to use a person for such purposes, which is why a cute and fluffy puppy was chosen for this role as an adequate replacement. The student volunteers were told that the puppy was being taught to distinguish between continuous light and flickering. If the animal could not stand in the right place, then the subjects sent a discharge of current by pressing a special button. As in Milgram's experiments, the voltage increased by 15 volts with each wrong action. Only this time the puppy was hit by a real current. With increasing tension, the puppy at first just barked, then began to jump, and in the end he just howled in pain. This terrified the volunteers, many began to cry openly, the subjects began to breathe quickly, they shifted from foot to foot. Someone even tried to tell the dog with gestures where it needs to get up. However, most of the people, about 80%, continued to press the button, increasing the voltage to the maximum. Interestingly, six male students refused to participate in such an experiment at all, but all thirteen women who took part passed it to the end.
Study of the dying heartbeat. In October 1938, the first experiment of its kind was carried out. In it, prisoner John Deering, sentenced to death, took a last drag on his cigarette, sat down on a chair, allowed a black hood to be put on his head, and a target attached to his chest. Electronic sensors were attached to his wrists. This volunteer volunteered to participate in research that aimed to measure the heartbeat of a person at the moment they were shot in the chest. Prison doctor Besley, who organized the experiment, decided that if Deering were to be executed anyway, why not help science further? After all, so, perhaps, there will be new information about the influence of fear on the work of the heart. The electrocardiogram showed that in the moment preceding the shots, the person's heart was beating like a jackhammer with a frequency of 120 beats per minute, and this despite the apparent calmness of Deering. After the sheriff ordered to shoot, the heart rate increased by another half. The prisoner's chest was hit by 4 bullets, throwing the body back. One of them pierced right into the heart, into the right side of it. However, for another 4 seconds, the heart continued to contract. The heart rate then began to drop and finally stopped 15.4 seconds after the first shot. Giving an interview to the press the next day, Dr. Besley noted the courageous behavior of the prisoner, because behind the ostentatious calmness was hidden a storm of emotions and strong fear, which was shown by the electrocardiogram.