A medium is a person who serves as a link between the material and the spiritual world. The Bible also mentions the Endor sorceress who summoned the spirit of the prophet Samuel.
Since 1760, books began to appear on the topic of communication between people and the dead. The best mediums are widely known.
However, when scientists began to study the phenomenon, it turned out that there was massive fraud. However, people believe in this, as did the most famous mediums.
Daniel Douglas Hume (1833-1886). This man is considered by many to be the most famous spiritualist medium. He had unusual abilities in levitation, clairvoyance, and the demonstration of psychic phenomena. Hume had many high-ranking admirers - these are Queen Victoria, Napoleon III, Alexander II, Kaiser Wilhelm I, the rulers of Bavaria and Württemberg. Charles Dickens and Conan Doyle appeared in Hume's sessions. The medium was born in Scotland. His father claimed to be the illegitimate son of the Earl of Hume. Mother Elizabeth McNeill was a hereditary psychic. However, in the country it was considered a family curse, so the ancestors of the medium had to hide their talent. As a child, Hume was raised by an aunt who moved to the United States in the late 1830s. There Daniel entered school, but instead of active games, he preferred to walk with a friend in the woods. The boys read the Bible to each other and agreed to establish contact if any of them left this world. Since childhood, Hume has shown his unusual abilities - at home, furniture began to move next to him. It was not possible to expel the demons from the boy, because the priest declared this Tao to be of God. But the aunt drove out the strange pupil. Hume began to travel around the country conducting seances. Even the pundits were amazed at the young man's unusual abilities. Attempts to bring him to clean water have failed - the researchers recognized the talents of the medium. In addition, he began to demonstrate more and the miracles of levitation. At 22, Hume returned back to England. His daylight sessions immediately became popular. Surprised people claimed that this called into question the latest advances in science. The medium's tour of Europe was a success, and in Russia he was even found a bride. With Hume's hand, Napoleon from the underworld wrote his name, the handwriting was recognized by his grandson, Napoleon III. Spirits made sounds, played invisible musical instruments, knocked. Objects moved even in closed rooms. Hume was distinguished from most of his colleagues by his unselfishness, as well as his desire to work in the light. He himself said that he was trying to prove to people their immortality. The medium won sensational fame in London with his levitation sessions. He flew out of one window and flew into another. At 38, Hume's health deteriorated so much that he stopped giving sessions. In total, Daniel spent about one and a half thousand sessions in his life. The great medium died at the age of 53, on his grave is inscribed "Until the next meeting with the spirits."
Florence Cook (1856-1904). This woman is one of the most famous figures of the era of the heyday of interest in spiritualism. The researchers note that Cook was able to materialize the spirit of Katie King, who confessed that he was the daughter of the pirate Henry Morgan. Florence was born in the family of an ordinary worker. Since childhood, she felt the presence of certain spirits nearby. The gift of a medium manifested itself in the girl at the age of 14. Friends at the tea party suggested an experiment with table turning. However, the round massive object suddenly became uncontrollable, rising from Miss Cook into the air. After that, the mother forbade her daughter to conduct sessions in public places, confining herself to her own home. A circle formed around Florence, which included her family and the maid. The Hackney Circle became famous in London. Miss Cook herself began to demonstrate the talents of automatic writing. Messages began to appear from under her hand that could be read in the mirror. Following the instructions of the spirits, Florence met other spiritualists. The girl entered their circle and began to conduct sessions for the general public. In 1872, at a session of a medium, a white figure of a woman who called herself Cathy King suddenly appeared. The guests touched the figure, witnessing its disembodiment. Katie promised that she would communicate with people through Florence for three years. Surprisingly, the spirit appeared in the daytime, even allowing himself to be photographed. The very same medium at this time was tied up in the next room, completely unconscious. Attempts to expose Florence and prove that it is she who appears in the image of the spirit have failed. Thus, the public believed even more in the phenomenon of the medium. Professor Crookes conducted a series of experiments with Florence, which clearly proved that she and Katie cannot be the same person. In 1874, Katie left our world for good, saying goodbye to the medium in front of Crookes. Florence herself got married and left spiritual practice for a while. Her return after 6 years was unsuccessful, single sessions could not restore its former reputation. The female medium died of pneumonia. The very same spirit Katie King has repeatedly appeared to mediums around the world after the death of Florence Cook.
Madame d'Esperance (1855-1919). Under this name the Englishwoman Elizabeth Hope entered the history of spiritualism. You can learn about her childhood from the autobiographical work "Land of Shadows". Elizabeth's family lived in an old house, the girl herself began to notice strange shadows of strangers here. These figures passed through her without noticing, others bowed and smiled. So the medium had her first friends. As a child, she suffered from hallucinations and somnambulism, her mother scolded her and took her to the doctor. Once tired Elizabeth did not complete her homework, leaving a blank sheet of paper on the table. Imagine her surprise when in the morning she found an excellent essay on it, written by her own hand. The composition was named the best in the class. At 19, the girl got married and moved to Newcastle. Then she heard about séances and strange phenomena happening there. Overcoming indecision, the woman went there. In the first session, strange things began. The table began to vibrate strongly, and an unknown force began to answer questions with knocks. The medium began to take part in such sessions, producing unexpected effects. When Elizabeth shared her impressions with the shadow people, they offered to teach her automatic writing. The circle of her respondents included a young student, a philosopher, and even a seven-year-old girl. Elizabeth began to show skills and artistic mediumship - she began to sketch transparent figures. Traveling through Europe, Madame d'Esperance learned to materialize spirits. At the same time, she herself was unconscious. Elizabeth turned out to be a disinterested medium, her fees went to organizational costs. Instead of Walter's spirit, 15-year-old Arab Yolanda began to come. She turned out to be very curious and asked many questions herself, brought plants and flowers from nowhere. The phenomenal popularity and missionary activity of the medium did not bring her happiness. The woman arrived in depression, tormented by doubts. In addition, observers constantly tried to convict her of fraud, causing the woman three physical injuries. Before the outbreak of World War II, the medium ended up in Germany, where she was arrested, and her papers and manuscripts were destroyed. The life of Madame d'Esperance is a clear example of what a talented medium in Victorian England had to face.
Emma Harding-Britten (1823-1899). This activist belonged to the first wave of spiritualism. The practicing medium also left behind many famous books. Emma was born in London, and from childhood she showed unusual musical abilities. The young girl showed the ability to clairvoyance and mediumship - she predicted the fate of people she did not know, guided by visions. In 1854, Emma Harding became an actress and ended up in the United States. In February 1856, she received a message from the spirit that the ship Pacific had sunk. This event was confirmed, it made Emma a convinced spiritualist. The medium became famous, she traveled around the country and gave basic lectures. In 1864, she supported Abraham Lincoln in his fight for re-election as President. In his book A History of Spiritualism, Conan Doyle himself singled out her talents as a medium and talented orator. In 1870, a woman published a book, Contemporary American Spiritualism, which became a kind of Bible for that movement. Attempts to publish a magazine on this subject have failed. In general, Harding's sessions and lectures were met with hostility from the church and public figures. Visitors were subjected to insults and pressure. Unsurprisingly, Emma returned to England, where Spiritualism took root more deeply. There she founded a weekly, and even went to Australia and New Zealand with her teachings. It is Harding who is credited with the canonical "7 Principles of Spiritualism." Conan Doyle recalls that during her lifetime Emma was called “the apostle Paul in female form” for her work.
Andrew Jackson Davis (1826-1910). This American is considered by many to be the founder of spiritualism as a science. The books dictated in trance brought him special fame, which in the USA alone withstood 40 reprints. The medium was born into a poor family on the banks of the Hudson. His mother was very religious. By the age of 16 he himself had not received an education, and from the books he read only the Catechism. At 17, Davis attended a lecture on mesmerism, which interested him. However, the knowledge gained in practice could not be applied. It turned out that in a trance state the young man is capable of a lot. He read closed books, made diagnoses and, having no medical knowledge, prescribed the correct treatment for patients. Under the guidance of the hypnotist, Davis began to develop his abilities. Davis learned the spiritual journey, he described mineral deposits, saw the earth from above. The medium soon learned to go into a trance on his own. In 1844, under the influence of some force, Davis ran out of the house and found himself 40 miles from home, in the mountains. Then he began to communicate with the spirits of prominent philosophers, which gave the medium enlightenment. After that, Davis began to preach about the structure of the world, spirituality, the meaning of life. The professors noted that the texts dictated by the medium were so deep that it was impossible to achieve this even by reading all the books in the world. The medium was also engaged in predictions, describing the appearance of a typewriter and a car, the number of planets in the solar system. From 1845 to 1885, Davis wrote about 30 books that covered topics ranging from medicine to cosmology. In 1878, the medium unexpectedly broke with spiritualism, because the supporters craved sensations and did not show interest in the philosophy of this phenomenon. Towards the end of his life, Davis opened his own bookstore and traded in medicinal herbs.
Keith Fox (1837-1892), Margaret Fox (1833-1893). Kate was one of three sisters who were destined to be at the center of important events. Psychic abilities were inherited by girls. The Fox family settled in Hydesville, New York. Their house had a bad reputation - a man disappeared here, and noises and knocks came from his room. The sisters began to claim that at night someone came to them - he touched Katie with a cold hand, pulled off the blanket with Margaret, footsteps were heard. The practical father of the family searched the entire house, but found no sources of noise. On March 31, 1848, Kate turned to an invisible spirit, asking him to knock on contact. It succeeded, the claps indicated the correct age of the children. Then a special alphabet was developed, thanks to which the spirit told that he was the trader Charles Rosma who was killed and buried in the basement. Over time, a human skull was discovered in the basement, and after the death of the sisters and a skeleton. After leaving the mysterious house, the sisters found that the spirits continued to communicate with them through knocking. Beginning in 1850, public seances began to be held, which were attended by many celebrities. There was a wave of revelations in the press, albeit with many inconsistencies. But many people around the country have discovered that they are also able to communicate with spirits. A powerful movement arose, which by 1855 already had a million supporters. From 1861 to 1866, Kate Fox conducted about 400 sessions for the manager and businessman Charles Livermore, the course of which was carefully documented. There was even a materialization of the spirit of Livermore's wife. In 1876, Kate reunited with her sister Margaret in England. The joint tours were more of a missionary character. Constant stresses associated with psychological stress, a hostile atmosphere, just the commercial exploitation of the sisters led to an addiction to alcohol. In 1888, Margaret conducted a self-exposure session for money, showing her snapping her toes. However, fans of spiritualism were not impressed, because they heard sounds from different parts of the room. As a result, Margaret retracted her statements. The sisters died in poverty. And their old home in Guidesville is now open to tourists. It has a plaque that reads: "Birthplace of Modern Spiritualism."
Evsalia Palladino (1854-1918). This woman was born in Naples, her phenomenon was studied by scientists for 40 years. The medium was a very controversial person, because she was repeatedly convicted of deception. Nevertheless, Evsalia demonstrated such phenomena that no one could explain somehow, despite the strict methods of control. But thanks to the noisy fame of Palladino, the phenomenon of spiritualistic materialization has become the focus of serious research, among which even the Curies can be mentioned. Ever since childhood, Evsalia has shown herself to be strange. In her presence, knocks were heard, she felt the touch of invisible hands. The orphaned girl found herself in a new family, where her talent as a medium was quickly recognized. The famous Italian paranormal researcher Damiani learned from spirits in London about the existence of an unusual girl in Naples. Under his leadership, Evsalia began to rapidly develop her abilities. At first, she was engaged in contactless mediumship, then transparent hands and figures began to appear in her sessions. Scientists began to conduct scientific research on the Palladino phenomenon. They wrote that she attracts objects to herself, makes them fly. Even a woman herself can rise into the air. The venerable professors stated the reality of what was happening. With all this, Palladino herself showed herself like an ordinary undeveloped peasant woman. True, he was cunning, which even bordered on a lie. The extravagant nature led to the frustration of studying the talent of a woman at Cambridge. In 1910, Palladino moved to the United States.Her abilities as a medium by that time had fallen into decay, she just tried to cheat, using her former glory. In 1918, an illiterate woman-medium died, she never found out what controversies around her personality had been waged by pundits for decades. Conan Doyle wrote that although her phenomenon was peculiar, before her there was no such strong medium in the history of spiritualism.
Leonora Piper (1857-1950). This woman was destined to play one of the key roles in spiritualism of the late 19th century. It is believed that it was thanks to this woman and her correspondence with the spirits that clear evidence of the posthumous existence of the human spirit was obtained. Piper allowed research on her communication with the dead. Her seances have led many influential admirers to spiritualism. At the same time, the reputation of the medium was impeccable, unlike many of her colleagues. Leonora said that she got her first spiritualistic experience at the age of 8, playing in the garden. The girl felt pain in her ear, after which she heard a voice. He said that Aunt Sera had not died at all, she was near. Imagine the surprise of the family when a few days later the news of the death of this relative came. Apart from this incident and a few others like it, childhood was common. At 22, Leonora married the Boston spiritualist Piper. Soon, the woman got an appointment with a clairvoyant who plunged her into a trance. In this state, she wrote on paper a message to Judge Frost from his deceased son. The astonished addressee stated that he had never seen a more convincing message from the other world. Newspapers wrote about this, Mrs. Piper became famous, she was invited to sessions as a professional medium. Even the skeptic Dr. James was so impressed by what he saw that he became Leonora's manager, and later created the American Society for Psychical Research to organize the work. At first, Piper spoke in a trance in the voice of a certain Finney, in 1892 George Pelham joined him. He took control of the shcha by automatic letter, leaving messages to his "colleague". In 1897, control of the medium passed to a group led by the spirit of the "Emperor". Leonora did not have the ability for physical mediumship, everything was limited to messages. In 1889, the medium arrived in Great Britain. Scientists believed it would be easier to prove her fraudulent in an unfamiliar environment. But already in the first sessions, Piper demonstrated the phenomenon - she described the appearance of the deceased relatives of Dr. Lodge, told the details of his family and the history of generations. Even the hired detectives could not shake the reputation of the medium. The studies of 1908-1909 exhausted Piper so much that it postponed the imprint on her entire career. The control methods were literally torture, and she herself began to lose her abilities. In 1911, it was announced that the medium would stop giving sessions. The outstanding woman returned to her work only occasionally. Leonora Piper devoted her whole life, strength and health to the research of the mysterious phenomenon of spiritualism.
George Anderson (born 1952). The medium recalls that he acquired his gift in childhood, after suffering chickenpox. True, initially, the manifestation of talent was hampered by religiosity. There was simply no place for such paranormal abilities in the belief system. Such a gift was even perceived by adults as hallucinations. Since the mid-1970s, the medium began to actively use his abilities. Anderson hears a noise in his head, and then souls begin to transmit their messages through it. At the same time, the accuracy of information reaches 85%. In 1982, George becomes the first medium to get his own time on cable. Since 1991, Anderson has been under the scrutiny of scientists. The medium successfully passed all tests, proving his abilities. This brought him international fame. Anderson's messages have been compiled into the bestseller We Don't Die. George Anderson's Conversations with the Otherworld. In 1997, the book "Children remained forever" was published, in which the medium talked about his experience of communicating with dead children. In "Lessons of Truth" 1999, Anderson spoke about the afterlife, told what awaits us after death, gave advice on the right life. A Walk in the Garden of the Soul, published in 2001, continued this theme. Since 2004, the medium has ceased to appear in the media, giving all of himself to work in his non-profit organizations.
Sylvia Brown (born 1936). This is one of the most respected mediums living in our time. An energetic woman is very close to the people. After all, her books are often published and have a wide range of readers. Sylvia was born in Kansas. I must say that since childhood she was surrounded by people with an unusual gift. Her grandmother Ada was also a medium and healer. The girl showed her talent at the age of three. She says that she loved going to big companies, silently noting who was sick with what, who had problems in the family. Sylvia has always used her talent for the benefit of people. In 1964, she realizes that she can practically use unusual opportunities. Brown moves to California, where he enters the circle of paranormal lovers. In the 1970s, Sylvia became famous as a practicing medium. To facilitate her experiences, she herself creates an organization called the Society of the New Spirit. She teaches that the soul experiences death, God exists, it is necessary to create the unity of loving people, rejecting prejudices. For many years, Brown served as a conduit for the transmission of messages from a spirit named Francine. Thanks to him, the medium received answers to many questions, which served as material for books and lectures. In 1989, the first book of a medium was published, in which she told the reader advice on how to independently look into another world. Sylvia is loved by CMT, she successfully demonstrates her talents on television shows.