Each generation gives birth to its own idols, both in politics, and in art and music. Let's talk about 15 of the most influential filmmakers in the entire history of mankind, who made the greatest contribution and left the most striking mark in the history of this field of creativity.
And today their masterpieces remain beloved by millions, because at one time they turned the consciousness of many people, demonstrating the new possibilities and depth of everyone's favorite art - cinema.
Alfred Hitchcock (1899-1989). World fame and popularity of Hitchcock brought his paintings "Window to the courtyard", "Rebecca", "Dizziness" and others. It was they who allowed the director to be considered a real "Master of Horror". Most of Hitchcock's paintings are thrillers. Demonstration of what is happening from the point of view of the main character has become the director's favorite technique, it is through his eyes that the viewer can observe the scene. The director paid a lot of attention to sound - the use of unexpected effects made it possible to enhance the impression of what was happening on the screen. Alfred Hitchcock has directed 65 films and has become a living movie legend. The films "Birds" and "Psycho" have become true horror classics. In 1967 he received an "Honorary Oscar", "Irwin Thalberg Memorial Prize", but Hitchcock never received a real Academy Award for his director. The director is also known for his cameos - he appeared in small episodes in all of his later films.
David Wark Griffith (1875-1948). Today, few people generally remember the plots of Griffith's paintings, but he forever entered the history of cinema, as the creator of modern cinema. David came to the conclusion that the basis of any film should be the plot and the technique for its presentation. The work of this director has made cinema a special kind of art. The bulk of Griffith's films are short films. He shot over 450 small films. In collaboration with Billy Bitzer, the director introduced new filming techniques: cross, parallel and short editing. The crown of Griffith's career was the film "The Birth of a Nation", it turned his whole life. The painting had a pronounced racist flavor, the members of the Ku Klux Klan were exhibited in it as heroes. However, spectators walked in droves to the cinema, and the tape was eventually banned in eight American states. In 1935, the American Film Academy awarded Griffith an Oscar for his contribution to the development of cinema.
Orson Welles (1915-1985). Griffith's innovations were refined by Orson Welles. The director got into the cinema after his radio play "War of the Worlds" made a stunning impression. It was then that RKO Pictures offered him a contract. As a result, Wells directed the film Citizen Kane, which was later named the best film ever. Even for today's cinema, the technique used then seems modern. The director continued his work in Europe, in an attempt to find something new. A characteristic feature of the maestro was the use of mirrors and shadows in films. Wells' role in the history of cinema can hardly be overestimated; he is one of the most ingenious directors who have had a noticeable influence on the development of this art.
Jean-Luc Godard (born 1930). The most famous of the French new wave in cinema. His picture "In the Last Breath" is considered by many to be the first in the history of new cinema. The director bravely violated the existing shooting rules. He used a handheld camera and natural light, which gave the events an impression of spontaneity and documentary. But the actors in Godard constantly look directly into the camera, and the scenes are sharp. This gives the viewer the opportunity to understand that the picture is not documentary, but artistic. How Godard works is most accurately reflected in his most famous phrase: "The film should have a beginning, middle and end - but not necessarily in that order." The director's work played an important role in the formation of the young cinematography of the countries of Eastern Europe, Africa and Latin America in the 60s. Godard's role in art is accurately described by Open City Pictures' Jason Cliton: “In contemporary cinema, Godard plays the same role as Picasso in contemporary art - the role of a reckless daredevil, a pioneer and a man who is not afraid of anything, who wants to try everything. and for which there are no restrictions. "
John Ford (1884-1973). The only director ever to have won four Oscars. Besides, Ford was also a writer. The director has successfully shown himself in both silent and sound cinematography, leaving behind a rich artistic legacy. According to many, his most famous painting was "The Searchers". Westerns "Stagecoach" and "The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance" are iconic in their genre, but Ford was not limited to this theme. He filmed Steinbeck's novel "The Grapes of Wrath", made the film "The Quiet Man", and tried his hand at documentary. His films "Battle for Midway" and "December 7" were also quite popular with viewers and critics. Ford also became famous for his love in the cinema for long-range shots. In total, the director shot about 130 films, ultimately paying the most attention to the following topics: Ireland, the homeland of their ancestors, the development of the West and the everyday life of the American army.
Stanley Kubrick (1928-1999). He was one of the most influential filmmakers in the 20th century. Most of the director's films are film adaptations, in which Kubrick demonstrated both technical prowess and a new approach to storytelling in general. His films are imbued with subtle wit. Kubrick sought to saturate films with a wide range of emotions, which is a rather difficult trick for any director. People who watch his films can laugh and cry over the same thing. The viewer becomes an accomplice in the film, experiencing on a par with the main characters. The director liked to use metaphors in his films, so sometimes the understanding of the true intention came only after a few views. Stanley Kubrick tried himself in various genres - in addition to film adaptations, his biography also includes horror films and psychological films. The uniqueness of the director's work puts him above any particular genre, his films have created their own separate creative niche - films by Stanley Kubrick.
Sergei Eisenstein (1898-1948) managed to shoot only 7 films, but his work had an invaluable influence on modern cinema. One of the most impressive films of all time was his "Battleship Potemkin". The director's innovative technique was used in his other films, but it was this tape that allowed him to take his place along with Wells and Griffin among the main innovators of cinema. Eisenstein has many followers, the most famous of whom is Alfred Hitchcock.
Charlie Chaplin (1889-1977) became the first Hollywood superstar. However, his successes are associated not only with the acting, but also with the direction. All his paintings gathered full houses, Chaplin's films without words made it possible for people to feel the full range of feelings. The subject of the director's films was quite diverse - he touched upon social and political issues. Although silent film soon gave way to sound, Chaplin's directorial technique and mannerisms had a strong influence on cinema. Woody Allen and Lloyd Kaufman stand out among the director's followers.
Federico Fellini (1920-1993) was perhaps the most famous Italian filmmaker. His genre was called neo-realism. At first Federico was a simple screenwriter and helped another legend of Italian cinema, Roberto Rossellini, on the films Countryman and Rome - Open City. Most of Fellini's films reflect his own dreams, not harsh reality. Many tried to bring simplicity to the cinema, but it was the pictures of this Italian who were able to captivate millions of viewers in this way. Fellini created his own inimitable and unique style, entering with him into the treasury of world cinema. His classic film, La Dolce Vita, first drew an angry press for its faithful portrayal of modern society. But later the film became a symbol of a great era in Italian cinema, laying the foundation for the director's collaboration with Marcello Mastroiani.
Steven Spielberg (born 1946) introduced the concept of blockbuster, which appeared with the release of the movie "Jaws". Today it is Spielberg who is the most successful director, shooting the largest number of large-budget films. His films have already become classics, it is enough to remember "Indiana Jones", "Schindler's List", "Jurassic Park". In 1999, Spielberg was officially recognized as the best director of the 20th century, and in 2001 Queen Elizabeth of Britain even knighted him for his invaluable contribution to the development of the British film industry. It is Steven Spielberg who is the highest grossing director in film history - his films have grossed nearly $ 9 billion. It is curious that the attempts of the novice director to enter the film school at the university were rejected with a resume: "Too mediocre."
Martin Scorsese (born 1942) is the representative of the "new generation" that emerged in Hollywood in the 70s. This is one of the pillars of modern cinema, he was able to raise the concept of aggression and sex to a new, higher level. Scorsese is not an agitator for violence, he simply adorns it exquisitely. The boxing scene in the film "Raging Bull" has become one of the most spectacular and exciting in history. Scorsese prefers to fill his tapes with drama and life trials. His movies are often based on real events. The director tends to use his favorite actors and assistants over and over again.
Akira Kurosawa (1910-1998) left a significant mark on the history of world cinema. Suffice it to mention his films, which became the basis for Hollywood films: "Seven Samurai" ("The Magnificent Seven"), "Bodyguard" ("For a Fistful of Dollars") and "Three Scoundrels in a Hidden Fortress" ("Star Wars"). Although Kurosawa shot his paintings in Japan, his popularity in his homeland was less than in the whole world. Compatriots constantly criticized Akira's paintings, and for the whole world he became the person who showed an interesting original culture to the whole world. Kurosawa's films are full of philosophical views, and he also managed to bring the cinematography of the East and West closer together.
Ingmar Bergman (1918-2007) created a number of favorite masterpieces by the audience, with the help of actress Liv Ullman and cinematographer Sven Nykvist. Most of Bergman's paintings were autobiographical, the director, with his films, told how a person's life depends on a series of different circumstances. Ingmar skillfully used introspection to create memorable paintings. Bergman did not recognize special effects, and light was his favorite technical tool. It was with his help that the emotions of the actors were demonstrated and their most hidden secrets were revealed. The main theme of Ingmar's work is a person left alone with himself and the search for true human relationships. Bergman also acted in parallel as a theater director, staging plays by Shakespeare and Chekhov.
John Cassavetes (1929-1989) is widely regarded as the founder of American independent cinema. Cassavetes started his career in this industry as an actor and used the earned money to direct his debut film "Shadows". In it, no script was used at all, and the picture is devoted to a number of topics forbidden for that time, including interracial relations. Viewing Cassavetes' work takes a lot of patience. The director himself never taught the actors how to act, allowing them to be as natural as possible. This approach allowed the director to create the most realistic pictures. Cassavetes was a huge influence on Godard, Scorsese and Rivette, who later developed his ideas.
Billy Wilder (1906-2002) became one of the most popular directors and screenwriters in Hollywood, although he was born in Austria and did not speak English until he arrived in America in the 1930s. Few managed to repeat the success of the brilliant director. Almost until his death, Wilder went to the office, creating new ideas. His films "Sunset Boulevard", "Lost Weekend", "The Apartment" are loved by viewers all over the world. The director's track record includes more than sixty films and 6 Oscars. The keys to success, Wilder considered a well-thought-out script, well-aimed and aphoristic lines. The director became famous as the largest American comedy master, his film "Only Girls in Jazz" topped the list of the best comedies. However, Wilder often turned to topics atypical for Hollywood - prostitution, concentration camps, alcoholism and the meaninglessness of life.