Among all the humanities, it is philosophy that is called the most insidious. Hundreds of volumes have been written about each of this topic, their authors have tried to find an answer ...
But more often than not, they became even more confused when searching for the truth. After all, it was they who laid the foundations for future thought processes, over which other scientists had already fought.
Parmenides (520-450 BC). This ancient Greek philosopher lived before Socrates. Like many other thinkers of that era, he was distinguished by incomprehensibility and even a kind of insanity. Parmenides became the founder of a whole philosophical school in Helea. His poem "On Nature" has reached us. In it, the philosopher discusses the issues of knowledge and being. Parmenides reasoned that there is only eternal and unchanging Being, which is identified with thinking. According to his logic, it is impossible to think about non-being, which means that it does not exist. After all, the thought “is that which is not” is contradictory. The main student of Parmenides is considered Zeno of Elea, but the works of the philosopher also influenced Plato and Melissus.
Aristotle (384-322 BC). Along with Aristotle, Plato and Socrates are considered to be the pillars of ancient philosophy. But it was this person who was also distinguished by his educational activities. Aristotle's school gave him a great impetus in the development of the creativity of numerous students. Today, scientists cannot even figure out which of the works belong to the great thinker. Aristotle became the first scientist who was able to create a versatile philosophical system. Later it will form the basis of many modern sciences. It was this philosopher who created formal logic. And his views on the physical foundations of the universe markedly changed the further development of human thinking. The central doctrine of Aristotle was the doctrine of the primary causes - matter, form, cause and purpose. This scientist laid down the concepts of space and time. Aristotle paid much attention to the theory of the state. It is no coincidence that his most successful student, Alexander the Great, achieved so much.
Marcus Aurelius (121-180). This man went down in history not only as the Roman emperor, but also as an outstanding humanist philosopher of his era. Influenced by another philosopher, his teacher Maximus Claudius, Marcus Aurelius created 12 books in Greek, united by the common title "Discourses about oneself." The work "Meditations" was written for the inner world of philosophers. There, the emperor spoke about the beliefs of the Stoic philosophers, but not all of their ideas were accepted. Stoicism was an important phenomenon for the Greeks and Romans, because it determined not only the rules for patience, but also indicated the path to happiness. Marcus Aurelius believed that all people through their spirit participate in an ideological community that has no limitations. The works of this philosopher are easy to read today, helping to solve some of life's problems. It is interesting that the philosopher's humanistic ideas did not at all prevent him from persecuting the first Christians.
Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109). This medieval philosopher did a lot for Catholic theology. He is even considered the father of scholasticism, and the most famous work of Anselm of Canterbury was "Proslogion". In it, with the help of ontological proof, he gave unshakable evidence of the existence of God. The existence of God stemmed from his very concept. Anselm came to the conclusion that God is perfection, existing outside of us and outside this world, surpassing everything conceivable in magnitude. The main statements of the philosopher "faith that requires understanding" and "I believe in order to understand" then became a kind of motto of the Augustinian philosophical school. Thomas Aquinas was among the followers of Anselm. The disciples of the philosopher continued to develop his views on the relationship between faith and reason. For his work for the good of the church in 1494, Anselm was canonized, becoming a saint. And in 1720 Pope Clement XI proclaimed the saint a Teacher of the Church.
Benedict Spinoza (1632-1677). Spinoza was born into a Jewish family, his ancestors, after being expelled from Portugal, settled in Amsterdam. In his youth, the philosopher studies the works of the best Jewish minds. But Spinoza began to express orthodox views and became close to sectarians, which led to excommunication from the Jewish community. After all, his advanced views were in conflict with ingrained public views. Spinoza fled to The Hague, where he continued to improve. He made a living for himself by grinding lenses and private lessons. And in his free time from these everyday activities, Spinoza wrote his philosophical works. In 1677, the scientist died of tuberculosis, his ingrained disease was further aggravated by inhalation of lens dust. Only after Spinoza's death did his main work, Ethics, appear. The works of the philosopher synthesized together the scientific ideas of Ancient Greece and the Middle Ages, the works of the Stoics, Neoplatonists and Scholastics. Spinoza tried to transfer the influence of Copernicus on science into the realm of ethics, politics, metaphysics and psychology. Spinoza's metaphysics was based on the logic that it is necessary to define terms, formulate axioms, and only then, with the help of logical consequences, deduce the rest of the provisions.
Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860). The philosopher's contemporaries recalled him as a little ugly pessimist. He spent most of his life with his mother and cat in his apartment. Nevertheless, this suspicious and ambitious person was able to break into the number of the most important thinkers, becoming the most prominent representative of irrationalism. The source of Schopenhauer's ideas was Plato, Kant and the ancient Indian treatise of the Upanishads. The philosopher was one of the first who dared to combine Eastern and Western culture. The difficulty of the synthesis was that the first is irrational, and the second, on the contrary, is rational. The philosopher paid a lot of attention to questions of the will of man, his most famous aphorism was the phrase "Will is a thing in itself." After all, it is she who determines existence, influencing it. The main work of the philosopher's entire life was his "The World as Will and Representation." Schopenhauer outlined the basic modes of a decent life - art, moral asceticism and philosophy. In his opinion, it is art that can free the soul from the suffering of life. Others must be treated as oneself. Although the philosopher was sympathetic to Christianity, he remained an atheist.
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900). This man, despite his relatively short life, was able to achieve a lot in philosophy. The name Nietzsche is usually associated with fascism. In fact, he was not a nationalist like his sister. The philosopher was generally little interested in life around him. Nietzsche was able to create an original teaching that has nothing to do with an academic character. The works of the scientist questioned the generally accepted norms of morality, culture, religion and socio-political relations. That there is only the famous phrase of Nietzsche "God is dead". The philosopher was able to revive interest in philosophy, blowing up the stagnant world with new views. Nietzsche's first work, The Birth of Tragedy, immediately awarded the author with the label "the terrible child of modern philosophy." The scientist tried to understand what morality is. According to his views, one should not think about its truth, one should consider its service to the goal. Nietzsche's pragmatic approach is also noted in relation to philosophy and culture in general. The philosopher was able to derive a formula for a superman who would not be limited by morality and ethics, becoming aloof from good and evil.
Roman Ingarden (1893-1970). This Pole was one of the most prominent philosophers of the last century. He was a student of Hans-Georges Gadamer. Ingarden in Lviv survived the fascist occupation, continuing to work on his main work, "The Dispute about the Existence of the World." In this two-volume book, the philosopher talks about art. Aesthetics, ontology and epistemology became the basis of the philosopher's activity. Ingarden laid the foundations for a realistic phenomenology that is still relevant today. The philosopher also studied literature, cinema, the theory of knowledge. Ingarden translated philosophical works, including Kant's, into Polish, and taught a lot at universities.
Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980). This philosopher is very popular and loved in France. This is the brightest representative of atheistic existentialism. His positions were close to Marxism. At the same time, Sartre was also a writer, playwright, essayist and teacher. The concept of freedom lies at the heart of the work of philosophers. Sartre believed that it is an absolute concept, a person is simply condemned to be free. We ourselves must shape ourselves, being responsible for our actions. Sartre said: "Man is the future of man." The surrounding world has no sense, it is the person who changes it with his activity. The work of the philosopher "Being and Nothing" has become the most real Bible for young intellectuals. Sartre refused to accept the Nobel Prize for Literature, because he did not want to question his independence. The philosopher in his political activity has always defended the rights of a disadvantaged and humiliated person. When Sartre died, 50 thousand people gathered to accompany him on his last journey. Contemporaries believe that no other Frenchman gave the world as much as this philosopher.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961). This French philosopher at one time was a like-minded person of Sartre, being an adherent of existentialism and phenomenology. But then he moved away from communist views. The main ideas of Merleau-Ponty outlined in his work "Humanism and Terror". Researchers believe that it has features akin to fascist ideology. In the collection of his works, the author harshly criticizes the supporters of Marxism. The philosopher's worldview was influenced by Kant, Hegel, Nietzsche and Freud, he himself was fond of the ideas of Gestalt psychology. Building on the work of his predecessors and working on the unknown works of Edmund Husserl, Merleau-Ponty was able to create his own phenomenology of the body. This teaching says that the body is neither a pure being nor a natural thing. This is just a turning point between culture and nature, between self and alien. The body in his understanding is an integral "I", which is the subject of thinking, speech and freedom. The original philosophy of this Frenchman made him rethink traditional philosophical themes in a new way. It is no coincidence that he is considered one of the main thinkers of the twentieth century.