These people dreamed of changing the fate of the world. The revolution is associated with a change in the state system, its transition to a new stage.
The word "revolution" itself appeared in the 16th century to designate those new processes that took place in Holland and Germany. At the end of the 18th century, the revolution was already frightening the crowned heads.
The most fanatical activists argued that the world can only be renewed through blood. But their lives are real fascinating, informative and often tragic stories.
Cromwell. This is a rather controversial person in history. Some considered him a hero and dedicated poems to him, while others directly call him a villain who plentifully shed the blood of the British. The famous revolutionary was born in 1599. Little is known about his youth - he dropped out of school to provide for his family. Until 1640, Cromwell was an ordinary magistrate and fought with the government for the rights of the communities, with the clergy for the right to freely interpret the Bible. No one imagined that the "village nobleman" would be destined to lead the struggle against the king's despotism. In 1640, the contradictions between King Charles I and Parliament intensified. Two years later, the monarch declared war on his legislature. Then Cromwell began to form his own cavalry, because without it parliament could not win. In this army, ordinary commoners could become officers. The cavalry became the basis of the new army, and Cromwell himself became a lieutenant general. Parliament defeated the royalists, and Charles I was captured. With the active participation of Cromwell, the revolutionary court recognized the monarch as a tyrant and executed him in 1645. In subsequent years, Cromwell usurped power in the country, brutally suppressing the uprisings in Ireland and Scotland. Dispersed in 1653, the revolutionary turned into a dictator, a lord-protectorate of all England. Populations tired of revolutions did not support Cromwell's reforms; he himself was left alone, rejected by friends. Passion and courage gave way to irritability and suspicion. The great revolutionary died in 1658.
George Washington. The end of the 18th century was a very turbulent and defining era for America. After all, then the history of a new country began. The most prominent personality of those years for the United States was George Washington. It is interesting that his ancestors left during the English Revolution precisely because of their loyalty to the monarchs. The revolutionary was born in 1732, having received a modest education. Even the efforts of his parents were not enough to make George truly enlightened, so he did not master spelling and did not know any foreign languages. By the age of 17, Washington became a land surveyor and began working in this position in Culpeper County. And at 20 years after the death of his brother, George received an inheritance, becoming a wealthy landowner. But in the mid-1750s, a war broke out between the English and French colonies. Washington also took an active part in it. In 1754 he had already become commander of the Virginia militia. George proved to be a strict and disciplined commander. At the same time, he began his political career, being elected to district assemblies. After the Boston Tea Party, Washington became active, expressing solidarity with its colleagues. Soon, the politician was already speaking at the Continental Congress. It was he who was entrusted with the leadership of the colonial militia to protect American freedoms. Washington ended up with a scattered and undisciplined army. I had to put things in order there. In 1776-1781, the American army successfully resisted the British, having achieved their surrender. Washington appeared as the nation's savior, the country was immensely grateful to him. After the end of hostilities and the dissolution of the army, Washington returned to his estate. However, the general was besieged by the visitors who wrote to him a lot, not leaving him alone. And in 1787, at the first meeting of the convention, its president was elected - it was Washington. Presidential elections in the country were scheduled for February 1789, but no one had any doubts about who should head the state. And although the revolutionary himself was striving not for power, but for peace, he became President. Washington held this post for two terms, traveled a lot around the country and laid the foundation for a new capital. On March 4, 1797, the general resigned as head of the country, especially since by that time he was criticized by the press. He did not have time to enjoy a calm life, having died in 1799. In his will, Washington also ordered the release of all of his slaves after the death of his wife.
Marat. Born in 1743, the revolutionary became one of the leaders of the Great French Revolution. In many ways, it was Marat who laid the foundations of revolutionary terror. And Jean Paul appeared in the family of a former priest who became an artist in the textile industry. The father saw a scientist in the first-born, while the mother brought up character and instilled in idealistic options. The boy loved to read and just dreamed of fame, the desire for it devoured his soul. At the age of 16, Marat left home, and in 1762 he moved to Paris. There he devoted all his free time to self-education, being carried away by philosophy, social and economic issues. In 1765, Marat, who did not want to study medicine for a long time, moved to London. There he proved himself to be a good doctor and even received his doctorate in medicine in 1775. In England, Marat became involved in the cliterature and politics, realizing that with the help of the newspaper an active person can achieve fame. In 1776, the Frenchman returned to his homeland, but then he was greeted cool. Marat had to actively get down to business - he treated both commoners and aristocrats. The events of 1789 forced the doctor to give up his studies and dive into politics. Marat began to publish his own newspaper "Friend of the People", becoming its editor. Soon the name of the newspaper passed to the doctor himself. In 1791, the situation in France worsened - European countries were preparing an intervention, and the king was preparing to escape. Then Marat demanded the overthrow of Louis XVI, as he had earlier called on the people through his newspaper to continue the revolution. And after the overthrow of the monarchy and the declaration of the republic, Marat became a member of the Convention. He continued to call for decisive action, insisting on the execution of the king. Marat's authority became so high that the Jacobins elected him their president. In the spring of 1793, the revolutionary fell seriously ill. But even lying in bed, he wrote to the newspaper, criticizing too lenient measures against the enemies of the revolution. Marat demanded to execute first 20 thousand, and then 270 thousand nobles. The idealist republican Charlotte Corday, who appeared in his house, killed the revolutionary right in his bathroom. With the death of Marat, a wave of unprecedented terror began, which took the lives of not only the enemies of the new system, but also many of the revolutionaries themselves.
Robespierre. One of the brightest and bloodiest revolutions in history was the Great French Revolution. But if Marat prepared the ground for mass terror, then it was Robespierre who carried it out. The memory of him is so bloody that no monuments were erected to this man, streets and cities were not named after him. But at the age of 27, he passionately campaigned for the abolition of the death penalty, and after 8 years he argued that execution is the duty of any revolutionary government. At the beginning of his career, Robespierre defended the rights of the people, and at the end of his life he isolated himself from him. The strict legalist finally discredited the legal proceedings. The revolutionary patriot eventually became a tyrant. And Maximilien de Robespierre was born in 1758. His family was not poor; at Arassko College, the boy showed himself to be a diligent student, having received a scholarship to study in Paris. There Robespierre continued his excellent education and became interested in Rousseau's ideas, especially his political theory. In 1781, the young man became a lawyer in the Paris Parliament, but due to poverty he was forced to leave the capital. In the provinces, he was able to establish a calm and secure life. Guided by the principles of freedom and the right to life, the lawyer defended even the poor in court, doing it for free. And in 1789, Robespierre became a deputy of the States General from the third estate, which soon proclaimed itself to the National and Constituent Assembly. At the very beginning of the revolution, at the moment of the capture of Paris and the Bastille, the provincial lawyer was waiting. But when political clubs began to form, Robespierre showed himself in full swing. He became a regular at the Jacobin Club, which demanded the continuation of the revolution, not the preservation of the monarchy in an updated constitutional form. In 1792, another uprising took place in Paris, which made Robespierre one of the leaders of the revolution, along with Danton and Marat. Soon, former friends began to interfere with the ambitious politician. And so Danton was pushed into the background, and Marat was killed. Nothing could stop the terror that Robespierre unleashed. There were no more places in the prisons of Paris, and those accused of crimes against the state were deprived of their right of defense. The executioners executed 50 people at a time, and after the execution of Marie Antoinette the guillotine stopped working only at night. In the spring of 1794, terror turned against the political rivals of Robespierre. Even Danton was executed. Robespierre himself imposed a new law on the Convention, which abolished the court and the immunity of the deputies. Fear rallied the deputies and on July 27, 1794, Robespierre was accused of tyranny, immediately arrested, and soon executed.
Simon Bolivar. In South America, at the beginning of the 19th century, there was a wave of national liberation revolutions, one of the leaders of which was Simon Bolivar. And he was born in Venezuela, in Caracas in 1783 in a wealthy family. Left an orphan early, Simon was educated in Madrid and Paris, traveled to Europe and the USA. In Rome, Bolivar took an oath to free his country from Spanish rule. In 1810, with the outbreak of the war of the Latin Americans against the colonialists, Bolivar returned to his homeland to help the rebels. And for his facilitation of contacts with the British, he received the rank of colonel and the title of governor of Puerto Cabello. After the earthquake of 1812, many revolutionaries were frightened, taking it as punishment. But Bolival did not admit the defeat of his cause. He issues appeals, gathers an army. In 1813, the general freed Venezuela from the Spaniards, receives the title of "Liberator" and is recognized as a dictator. During the long wars with the Spaniards in 1813-1819, Bolivar was defeated, fled, collected new liberation and won again. And in 1819, the general became the president of great Colombia, which united New Granada, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama and Venezuela. By 1824, Bolivar had fought 472 battles. The Spaniards finally surrendered on August 11, 1826, the revolutionary himself conceived the creation of the Southern United States. However, the Congress of Deputies did not come to unity, and in 1830 the brainchild of Bolivar - his Great Colombia - fell apart. The struggle for power, strife and vanity of local kings pushed the national idea into the background. In Colombia itself, as early as 1828, the civil war began, Bolivar lost support in Peru. The revolutionary's authoritarian rule frightened allies away from him. Bolivar himself was accused of exorbitant ambition and was soon stripped of the presidency. In 1830, nine months after leaving the post of head of state, Bolivar died of tuberculosis.
Giuseppe Garibaldi. For many centuries, Italy was fragmented. Only thanks to this national hero a single state appeared. Garibaldi was born in 1807 in the family of a hereditary sailor. From a young age, he began sailing on merchant ships. And in 1833 the sailor joined the secret society "Young Italy". Then the revolutionaries only dreamed of creating an independent democratic state. In 1834, Garibaldt tried to prepare a sailor uprising in Pieont, but escaped and was sentenced to death in absentia. In his wanderings, the Italian even ended up in South America, where he took part in the national liberation wars. In the detachment of the brave revolutionary there were only Italians, who chose red cabinets as their uniform. In 1848, with the outbreak of revolution in his native Italy, Garibaldi leads rational battalions against Austria. With the help of an experienced revolutionary, the power of Pope Pius IX is overthrown. However, the Roman Republic quickly fell, Garibaldi himself was caught trying to help rebellious Venice. The authorities did not dare to execute the popular hero and he was expelled from the country. And again Garibaldi wandered around the world - he worked in the USA, sailed in the Pacific Ocean. And in 1859, Garibaldi was in demand by Piedmont in the fight against the Austrians. Together with a thousand as brave as himself, on May 11, 1860, the revolutionaries landed in Sicily. Gradually, the Red Shirts liberated not only the island, but also the south of Italy. Garibaldi was greeted everywhere as a national hero. He himself handed over the liberated lands to the king of Piedmont. In 1861, he proclaimed the creation of the Italian Kingdom. In the late 1860s, the revolutionary constantly participated in wars, even becoming a member of the French National Assembly. In 1871, Garibaldi wrote his political testament and practically retired. The famous nationalist died in 1882, bequeathed to burn his corpse in a red shirt and bury the ashes. And on the gravestone without words, only a red star flaunts.
Leon Trotsky. The name and role of this revolutionary in the history of Russia have been undeservedly overwritten by Soviet propaganda. But the whole world knows Trotsky as one of the main organizers of the October Revolution, the creator of the Red Army and a fiery revolutionary. Unfortunately, the ideological opposition to Stalin turned out to be fatal for Trotsky. And he was born in the same year with his main enemy, in 1879. At the age of 9 he left his father's house and entered a real school in Odessa. There Lev showed a phenomenal memory, which allowed him to achieve high marks. In the house of his distant relative, where Trotsky lived, he contracted a love of freedom. In his youth, Leo was ambitious, self-confident, constantly entering into conflicts. He soon dropped out of school, starting to play revolution and work with workers. Already at the age of 18, together with his mistress Alexandra Sokolovskaya, Trotsky created an underground circle, in which there were up to 200 people. At the beginning of the 20th century, the ardent revolutionary went to exile, where he met Dzerzhinsky and Uritsky. There, Lev Bronstein took the name of his warden, as a party nickname. Troiky escaped from exile, after illegal wanderings around the country he ended up in Vienna, and from there to London. There the revolutionary lived in Lenin's apartment and began to publish in his Iskra. There the union of two great people was born. In 1903, Trotsky supported the Mensheviks, becoming over time a prominent figure in the emigrated Social Democrats. After an active participation in the events of 1905, Trotsky moved to Vienna, where he published books, as well as the newspaper Pravda.With the outbreak of the First World War, the revolutionary denounced the incitement-imperialists in the press, for which he was even expelled from France. With the outbreak of the 1917 revolution, Trotsky returned to Russia. Here he admitted that the former rival, Lenin, is the main leader of the Bolsheviks. During these months, Trotsky not only actively called for the overthrow of the Provisional Government, but also advocated defeat, considering this an opportunity for a world revolution. As a result, in October 1917 it was Trotsky who, in fact, became the organizer of the coup, leading the uprising. In March 1918, Trotsky became military commissar, creating the Red Army. The victory in the Civil War strengthened the position of an ardent figure. Lenin himself saw in him almost his successor. After all, Trotsky managed to establish iron discipline in the army, attract tsarist generals and officers, and personally inspire the soldiers. At the same time, the revolutionary dreamed of a "world conflagration", either planning the capture of India, or starting a failed campaign in Poland. In 1923, attempts at revolutions in Europe finally failed, and after Lenin's death, a dislike for the potential leader was formed in the Politburo. It should be noted that since 1924, Trotsky has changed greatly. If earlier he campaigned for terror, revolutionary violence and discipline, now he began to call for self-government in the party, freedom of criticism. Gradually, Trotsky was removed from the management of the party, and in 1927 he was expelled from the party altogether. In 1929, the revolutionary was expelled from the country, because he had many supporters. Former associates openly announced a break with him. Until 1937, Troiky lived in Turkey and wrote a lot, continuing to fight the Stalinist regime in exile. And in 1937, the disgraced politician moved to Mexico, where he was hacked to death with an ice pick by a Soviet agent.
Che Guevara. If you appear in public today with a portrait of Trotsky or Robespierre, then at least no one will understand you. But the image of the legendary "Comandante Che" is very fashionable and is found on different subjects. How did he deserve such recognition? The famous revolutionary was born in 1928, not at all in Cuba, but in Argentina. As a child, Ernesto led an active lifestyle - he played rugby, football, chess, drove rafts around the Amazon, rode bicycles and a moped. At the age of 11, the restless boy ran away from home to meet adventures. Oddly enough, but during his years at the University of Buenos Aires, Ernesto was not involved in politics and did not participate in student speeches. He was much more interested in medicine. After completing his studies, Guevara decided to become a practicing doctor. The young specialist went to Guatemala, from where he fled to Mexico for political reasons. It was there that Guevara met Castro, it happened in 1954. The doctor joined the revolutionary fanned with glory and, as part of hundreds of rebels, went to conquer Cuba. During the partisan war, Guevara showed himself to be a brave, courageous and decisive commander, then receiving his nickname Che. After the victory of the revolution in Cuba in 1958, Che Guevara became the second most important member of the government after Castro. He headed the country's industry, the national bank, and travels around the world with diplomatic missions. However, Che is uncomfortable in a peaceful civilian post, he dreams of revolutions around the world and even writes scientific works on this issue. In 1965, Che Guevara resigned from all his posts, renounced the title of commandant and renounced Cuban citizenship. At first, the revolutionary staged anti-imperialist demonstrations in Africa, but defeat there forced him to return to Latin America. In 1967, Che Guevara began a guerrilla war in Bolivia, where, in his opinion, there was a need for a revolution. However, the authorities quickly defeated the rebels, the commandant was captured and shot. To prove that Che Guevara really died, his bodies were displayed, the wax mask was removed from his face, and his hands were severed. By the way, they were transported to Cuba, where they became an object of worship. And the remains of the fiery revolutionary will be transported to Havana, where they will be solemnly buried.
Mao Zedong. This great man in the history of China carried out a "cultural" revolution, which is very, very controversial. Most researchers come to the conclusion that such a dramatic and global change in the life of the country has greatly hampered its development. Mao himself has repeatedly stressed that only the Third World War can lead to the victory of the world revolution. It is no coincidence that in the 1960s and 1970s he was the idol of young extremists. The Great Helmsman was born in 1893 in the village of Shaoshan, in Hunan province. At the age of 8, the son of illiterate peasants began to attend school, but after 5 years he had to leave school - he had to help his father. But Mao did not see himself as a small trade and simply ran away from home. At the age of 17, a young Chinese man entered a school in Dongshan, where he became interested in adventure books and biographies of great people. In 1911, a republic was established in China, national ideas impressed Mao. By 1918, the young man got acquainted with Marxism, the works of Kropotkin. In 1921, Mao became a member of the first congress of the Chinese Communist Party. If in the 1920s a revolutionary makes a career in his party, then the 1930s were marked by a full-scale civil war, including with the participation of outright bandits on their side. Mao became famous for his brutal methods, literally physically destroying those who disagree with him. At this time, he is no longer fighting against the Japanese aggressors, but with his compatriots for power in the country. In 1934, Mao became chairman of the Chinese Soviet government. At this time, the cult of Mao began to form, which was facilitated by his excellent acting qualities. The revolutionary in every possible way demonstrated his closeness to the people, created the appearance of constant employment. And since 1937, international ideas have been replaced by national ones. The leader had no friends left, he was surrounded only by useful comrades. In the 1940s, Mao purged the party and finally formed his cult, placing himself above the party. And in 1957, the leader gave the country a plan to overtake the world's leading countries in terms of production. The agrarian sector began to shift to communist rails, the intelligentsia began to be massively suppressed. However, that "Great Leap Forward" ended tragically - more than 20 million people died of hunger alone. Mao took charge, and in 1966 announced the beginning of the Cultural Revolution. More than 100 million people suffered during the massive repression. The leader spent his last years in the imperial residence practically without appearing in public and died in 1976. The death of the great Chinese revolutionary allowed the country to rise and soon take the lead in the world.
Fidel Castro. Fidel Castro was born in 1926 in the family of a wealthy immigrant from Spain. In 1945, the young Cuban became a student at the University of Havana, where he participated in the student movement and even traveled to the Dominican Republic, where he tried to overthrow the dictator Trujillo. After completing his studies in 1950, Castro became a private lawyer, giving free advice to the poor. At the same time, the lawyer joined the Party of the Cuban People, heading its left wing. After the coup of 1952 and General Baptista's rise to power, Castro immediately accused the dictator of violating the Constitution. But the Supreme Court expectedly rejected the petition. Then Castro, along with his brother Raul and several dozen like-minded people, went on to armed struggle. But the military quickly arrested the revolutionaries, after serving only 2 out of 15 years of the established term, Castro was amnestied and exiled to Mekiska. There, Fidel did not abandon his idea of liberating the Ron island and formed a new partisan detachment. On November 25, 1956, Castro, along with hundreds of rebels, landed in Cuba. The guerrilla war ended in victory for the revolutionaries. Fidel Castro became prime minister, immediately starting the transformation in the country. Cuba quickly nationalized all enterprises, including foreign ones. In 1961, American mercenaries tried to land in Cuba, but in just three days the enemy was defeated. At this moment, Castro's rapprochement with the Soviet Union began. He himself constantly mentioned that he was an adherent of the teachings of Marx and Lenin. Cuba even hosts a Soviet military base. During his tenure, Fidel made the country totalitarian. The revolutionary himself has more than thirty houses and enjoys all the benefits at the expense of the state. Castro has survived many assassination attempts, he is an outstanding personality with a phenomenal memory. Cuba itself, despite massive emigration in the 1960s-1970s and bad relations with the United States, remained faithful to the communist course and the people, at least, are not starving.