The transfer of power has always been a difficult issue. The reason for this is the murder of the ruler, a conspiracy against him, the absence of those very heirs.
There were always more than enough people who wanted to take the throne. After all, this meant a sharp change in the state system and a sharp rejection of the previous foundations.
The people who publicly kill their former ruler are decisively breaking with the past. Our story will focus on the most famous rulers of the past and present, who were not lucky enough to fall at the hands of the executioner.
Louis XVI. The Great French Revolution forced the king to make significant concessions. On September 18, 1789, Louis signed a document abolishing the feudal rights of his lords. The monarch himself agreed to move to Paris, where he actually found himself in the status of a hostage. Seeing that power was slipping away, his wife, Marie Antoinette, got down to business. She decided to stifle the revolution with foreign aid. The queen was in active correspondence with her native Austria and friendly Prussia. It was Marie Antoinette who plotted the family's escape to Lorraine in June 1791. However, the king was identified, and the plans fell through. To save himself and his family, Louis was forced to swear allegiance to the Constitution and in 1792 even managed to declare war on Austria. However, a new wave of the Revolution led to the capture of the Tuileries Palace, the royal family was arrested and placed in the Temple prison. On September 21, 1792, Louis was officially deposed by the Legislature. The king himself, even in captivity, continued to communicate with foreign states and enemy emigrants. Then Louis was accused of high treason. During the trial, 380 votes against 310, the former monarch was sentenced to death. The monarch himself behaved with dignity, defended himself, referring to his constitutional rights. On January 21, 1793, he ascended the scaffold in Paris, on the Place des Revolutions. The last words of the king were that he dies innocent and forgives all who are to blame for his death. Guillotine cut off Louis's head. Europe reacted to such an outrageous fact - a month later France was at war with England, the Netherlands and Spain.
Nicholas II. In 1917, the power of the tsar was overthrown in Russia. Under pressure from public opinion and the country's plight during World War I, Nikolai handed over power to the Provisional Government. However, that did not last long - the Bolsheviks came to power in October 1917. White guard forces were immediately formed with the goal of overthrowing the new regime and returning the power of the tsar. In this difficult situation, the Bolsheviks signed a humiliating treaty with the Germans to end Russia's participation in the First World War. In the political chaos, the figure of Nicholas II and his family was very uncomfortable. This was an additional trump card in the hands of the White Guards. First, the former ruler was held captive near Petrograd, and then sent to Tobolsk, and from there to Yekaterinburg. There, the royal family, together with the servants, settled in a private house. In mid-July 1918, units of the White Guard troops began to approach the city. The distant sounds of guns began to be heard. This predetermined the fate of the king. Early in the morning of July 17, the tsar, his wife, children and servants were driven into a lodge and executed there. One of the participants in the execution recalled that the executed behaved quietly and calmly, guessing about their fate, without betraying excitement. In 2008, a decision was made to rehabilitate Nicholas II and his family members. And back in 1998, excavations were carried out in Yekaterinburg, the found remains were identified and reburied with honors in the Peter and Paul Fortress.
Charles I. In 1640, the conflict between King Charles I of England and parliament reached its climax. The fact is that the king trampled on the rights of the assembly to establish taxes. Charles also sought to subjugate the church by increasing the influence of the Anglican bishops. And this is all against the background of the fact that more and more Englishmen professed Protestantism, which did not recognize the episcopate. This policy of absolutism led to uprisings in Scotland and Ireland, the country plunged into civil war. Parliament had its own army of extreme Protestants led by Cromwell. The king, in 1642, raised his own banner over the troops. In 1645 Charles was defeated, he was kept first in the hands of the Scots, and then was transferred to the English Parliament. All this time, he does not seek compromises with Cromwell, negotiating with foreign allies. Even the parliament Karl was able to win over to his side. Then Cromwell, at the head of the army, arrived in London and dispersed the council, leaving only a part of it, Rump. Deputies loyal to Cromwell created a commission that sentenced Charles to death. He was declared a tyrant, traitor, murderer and enemy of the country. On January 30, 1649, the king was beheaded on the scaffold in front of his own palace. The last words of the monarch were about power and about absolutism. After the execution, the executioner raised Karl's head, but did not utter the traditional words: "This is the head of the traitor." The assassination of the king caused shock in society. After all, the king, whatever he was, was considered a sacred figure. Karl's head was even allowed to be sewn to the body in order to be buried with dignity in Windsor. The execution of the English king meant the end of the era of absolute monarchy. After a short reign of Cromwell, the son of the slain king, Charles II, was called to the throne.
Nicolae Ceausescu. The fall of communist regimes in Eastern Europe in the late 1980s even led to the execution of one of the former dictators. Ceausescu made his last speech to the already rebellious people of Romanians on December 21, 1989. The people thirsting for freedom heard the speech only about increasing salaries and pensions, which led to booing of the country's leader. In Bucharest, demonstrations constantly broke out, in response to this, military snipers began to shoot at people. On December 22, Ceausescu and his wife, after spending the night in his palace, fled from there by helicopter. The new Minister of Defense ordered not to shoot the people; from the balcony of the Central Committee building, the fall of the Ceausescu dictatorship was announced. Having left Bucharest, the former ruler realized that it was impossible to escape from the country. Changing the helicopter to a car, the dictator and his wife were unable to find shelter anywhere. As a result, on December 22 at 17:50 in Tirgovishte, he was detained by the police. In the capital, clashes continued between Ceausescu's supporters and his opponents. As a result, in the same Tirgovishte, a tribunal was quickly assembled, which within an hour sentenced the ruler and his wife to death. 10 minutes after the announcement, the sentence was already carried out. Ceausescu was shot by three volunteer paratroopers. With his last words, the leader glorified the Socialist Republic of Romania. The bodies of those executed were shown on national television the same day. This brutal move forced the dictator's supporters to lay down their arms, which saved the lives of thousands.
Joseph Tiso. By 1938, Josef Tiso was the de facto leader of the Slovak People's Party. When Germany occupied the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia, Slovakia declared autonomy. It was Josef Tiso who became its prime minister. In 1939, the politician visited Berlin, where Hitler persuaded him to proclaim the independence of Slovakia. Tiso immediately became the prime minister of the new republic, and then its president. Foreign policy of Slovakia was completely subordinate to the interests of Germany. Thus, Slovakia sided with the Reich in its attack on Poland. And the Slovaks entered the Soviet Union as part of the fascist troops. And Tiso's domestic policy was held with an eye to Berlin. The country created a mono-party authoritarian political system; in 1942, the president signed a law on the deportation of Jews. This became the embodiment of the leader's anti-Semitic views. As a result, more than 50 thousand Jews were deported and exterminated. When partisans intensified in Slovakia in 1944, Tiso called on Germany to help. This actually meant the occupation of the country. The arrival of German soldiers provoked the Slovak National Uprising. In April 1945, seeing the approach of Soviet troops, Tiso fled the country to Bavaria. There he was arrested by the Americans and extradited to Czechoslovakia. On charges of high treason, Joseph Tiso was hanged on April 18, 1947.
Saddam Hussein. In the 1970s, as a result of the revolution, the Baath Party seized power in Iraq. One of its leaders was Saddam Hussein, who was involved in security and intelligence services. In 1979, President al-Bakr resigned, and Hussein became the de facto head of state. He immediately carried out political cleansing, removing competitors. Hussein's ambitions to become the new regional leader demanded money and wars. The armed conflict with Iran has damaged the economy, the invasion of Kuwait has caused outrage from the world community. During Operation Desert Storm, Iraqi forces were defeated by the United States and its allies. Hussein himself responded by brutally suppressing the rebels, including with the help of aircraft and the army. The cult of the leader's personality was established in the country, although the people were starving. America decided to democratize Iraq, under the pretext of Saddam developing weapons of mass destruction and financing terrorists, a new military operation began in 1993. The dictator ignored the calls of the world community to Hussein to leave the post of the head of the country. In March-April 2003, Iraq was captured, the leader himself was constantly considered dead, but he appeared on television again and again, delighting his citizens. On December 13, 2003, Saddam Hussein was captured by the Americans. The dictator was hiding in the basement of a village house, he gave the impression of a tired man, resigned to his fate. On October 19, 2005, the trial of Hussein began. Especially for him, the occupation authorities reinstated the abolished death penalty. Saddam himself refused to acknowledge the legitimacy of the trial and rejected charges of executions, massacres and suppression of uprisings against him. On November 5, 2006, Hussein was found guilty and sentenced to death by hanging. The death of the dictator was shown on television, with his last words Hussein cursed the Persians and Americans. The dictator's death never reconciled the political and religious sides in Iraq. There are still shots and explosions. The Americans themselves admitted that they did not find any traces of the development of weapons of mass destruction, or Hussein's financing of al-Qaeda terrorists.
Luarsab II. When King George X of Kartli died, 14-year-old Luarsab II ascended the throne. His candidacy was approved by Shah Abbas I, who was at that time in Tbilisi. The young king was ordered to oppose the Ottoman Empire, he managed to prove himself in the battle of Tashiskari in 1609. In 1610 Luarsab II was visited by the Shah, who returned the Tbilisi fortress. In 1612, the king ordered the assassination of Khan Kazakh, who, by order of the Iranian Shah, ravaged Kartli. Having intermarried with the king of Kakheti, Luarsab II found an ally in the future confrontation with Iran. In 1614 Shah Abbas attacked Kartli. Luarsab went to Imereti, where he called for help from the Georgian kings and the Ottomans. Under the threat of devastation of the lands and eviction of the inhabitants, Luarsab returned to Kartli on the orders of the Shah. The young king was immediately imprisoned for refusing to follow Muslim traditions. For eight years Luarsab II was there, refusing to convert to Islam. Despite the requests of Georgian politicians and Russia, the tsar was still executed. Now he is canonized.
Maximilian I. In 1832, the second son of the Archduke Franz Karl of Austria was born in Vienna. Maximilian was very fond of the sea, but fate forced him to take up politics. For some time he visited the governor of Lombardy and Venice, and then the quiet family life turned upside down. In distant Mexico, an empire was formed, on the throne of which it was decided to put Maximilian, brother of the Austro-Hungarian Emperor Franz Joseph. The king found his new country in devastation and in civil war. Maximilian decided to become the person who will reconcile everyone. However, this clearly did not suit the European patrons. And the Austrian himself remained a stranger to his people. With the end of the Civil War, the French left Mexico, leaving Maximilian alone with the enraged Republicans. On February 13, 1867, the emperor, with the remnants of his troops, fled from Mexico City to Cuaretaro. The city fell on May 15. The emperor himself, along with his two generals, was sentenced to death by a military court. The execution took place on June 19. Interestingly, Maximilian's predecessor, the self-proclaimed emperor Agustin, was also shot. His body was embalmed and given to the Austrians for burial in the imperial tomb in Vienna.
Konradin. By birthright, Conradin could become the king of Germany, but due to the opposition of the Pope, he could not do this. The guardian of the 5-year-old boy left him with the inheritance of his father's lands and the title of the Swabian Duchy. Konradin officially took control of it and entered it in 1262. In 1266, another hereditary territory, Sicily, was transferred by the Pope to the French. The Italians called on Konradin for help, and he, with the support of large German feudal lords and their knights, crossed the Alps in 1267. Excommunication did not stop him either. Many Italian cities sided with Conradin in his campaign across the country. The battle against the French in the Arno Valley was won, in 1268 Conradin entered Rome as emperor. In Sicily itself, thanks to the Spaniards, an uprising against the French flared up. The decisive battle at Tagliacozzo on August 23, 1269, the German still lost. The disciplined French knights defeated an outnumbered mixed army of mercenaries. Konradin fled, but was captured and was given to Charles of Anjou. Together with his supporters, the German was sentenced to death, which was carried out in Naples on the market square on October 29, 1268. In memory of Konrad, two songs remained in German folklore, included in the Manes collection under the name "Songs of the Young King Konrad".
Jose Balta (1814-1872). The Peruvian Balta reached the rank of general by the age of 30. However, in 1855 he chose to retire and go into politics. José Balta took part in numerous uprisings that rocked the country in the 1860s. As a result, on August 2, 1868, he took over as President himself. The country was in a difficult situation. To rectify the situation, Balta resolutely set about solving economic problems. Agreements were concluded with foreigners, railways, new streets and bridges began to be built. The time has come for new elections. Balta himself supported Antonio Arenas, who eventually lost the fight to tax inspector Manuel Pardo. Then General Gutierrez turned to José Balta, calling for a military coup and retain power. Surprisingly, the president abandoned this in favor of democratic principles of power transfer. After Balta's refusal, Gutierrez decided to act on his own. On July 22, 1872, she, with the help of military force, removed the president from power and arrested him. Unrest began among the people, the actions of the rebellious general were not approved even by many military men.On July 26, 1872, due to popular unrest, a decree was issued to execute José Balta. However, the president's death caused even more outrage. On the same day, a crowd broke into the presidential palace and lynched Thomas Gutierrez, and his body was hung on one of the towers of the city cathedral. Surprisingly, in one day Peru lost two of its leaders at once.