The invention of writing became one of the greatest discoveries of mankind. Some are due to their deliberate confusion by the authors, and some are due to the fact that they are written in "dead" languages that are no longer understandable to contemporaries. We will tell below about 10 of the most interesting such texts, magical and religious content, whose codes and ciphers are still left "in the fools" of researchers and translators.
Serafini's Code. This famous book was written between 1976 and 1978 by the Italian artist, architect and designer Luigi Serafini. The Serafini Code can be considered a deliberate attempt at creating something mysterious. A 360-page book was born, which is nothing more than a visual encyclopedia of the unknown world, complete with maps, drawings of animals and plants. The code itself is written in an unknown language with an unknown alphabet that has not succumbed to intensive research by linguists. The book is divided into two parts. One tells about the natural world, and the second about man. The very word "SERAPHINIANUS" stands for Strange and unusual representations of animals, plants and hellish incarnations from the depths of the consciousness of the naturalist / anti-naturalist Luigi Serafini. "Since the text itself is absolutely unreadable, the Codex quickly became Serafini's most famous work of art. There are many surreal paintings here - bleeding fruits, a couple making love and transforming into a crocodile, fish in the form of flying saucers. All drawings are extremely rich in detail and brightly colored. There are many theories about what the Seraphini Code really is. The author himself prefers to remain meaningful silence since the time of the publication of the work in the 80s. The Code has both critics and admirers. They gave rise to many theories, some say that the text is completely written in a false language and does not carry any meaning. Others are trying to find something mystical in One thing is clear - so far no real answers have been received about the Code.
Linen Book (Book of the Zagreb Mummy, Liber Linteus). This ancient text dates back to the time of the Etruscans. The culture of this people once flourished on the territory of present-day Italy even before the advent of the Roman Empire there. In addition to being one of the oldest and longest Etruscan documents, the text is notable for being the only known example of a linen book. The Linen Book is interesting in the context of its discovery. After the fall of the Etruscans, all the artifacts of their culture, including Liber Linteus, ceased to be of any value to the Romans. The fact that the book survived became possible thanks to the material on which it was written - flax. After the Romans conquered Egypt, many adopted the customs of mummification, wrapping the body in cloth. It was through this practice that the Linen Book, a useless artifact, was ultimately used as a packaging for the burial of the mummified body of an Egyptian tailor's wife. The corpse was acquired hundreds of years later by the Croatian officer Mihailo Baric, who wanted to decorate the walls of his home with a mummy. After the death of the owner, the mummy ended up in the Croatian State Museum in 1867. At first, the fabric was stored separately, later experts found writing on it and became interested. Egyptologists have concluded that the written letters are Etruscan. Little is known about this language today. In total, the book contains 230 lines of text and 1200 preserved words out of 2500-4000. Most of the inscriptions remained untranslated, the deciphered words make it possible to understand that the book was ritual, it described the rituals of the ancient people, prayers.
Soyga's book. The Middle Ages became famous for their mysterious and mystical texts. But few can compare in its mystery to the Book of Soig, a treatise on magic and the paranormal. The text still contains chunks that scholars have never been able to translate. In general, the book mainly contains magic spells, instructions on astrology and demonology. The 16th century treatise is associated with the name of John Dee, an Elizabethan thinker with an interest in the occult. The scientist said that he owned one copy of this book, and he became literally obsessed with unlocking its secrets. Dee was particularly interested in a series of encrypted tables, which he considered the key to some esoteric secret. The task turned out to be not easy, because the author of the book used a number of coding techniques - rearranging words in places and other mathematical algorithms. John Dee became so fixated on solving codes that he even traveled to Europe to meet with a famous specialist in the magic community, Edward Kelly. With the help of the crystal, Dee received an answer from Archangel Uriel that the book was written in the Garden of Eden for Adam, and only Archangel Michael can decipher the texts. The scientist himself did not completely manage to decipher the secrets of the Book, studying it until his death. Although the existence of this document was known for certain, the Book of Soyga itself was lost until 1994, when two copies of it were discovered in England at once. Although scientists have carefully studied the texts, none of them was able to decipher at least partially the tables with which Dee was so carried away. It is believed that the book is closely related to the Kabbalah, a mystical Jewish sect. The true meaning of the book remains a mystery today.
Rohonts Code. Another document that turned out to be very resistant to any attempts at translation or decryption was the Rohonts Code. This centuries-old book allegedly surfaced in Hungary in 1743. The code consists of 448 pages of text written in an unknown language. Each page contains from 9 to 14 lines of incomprehensible characters. Scientists say it can be anything from early Hungarian to Hindi, because the language lacks some of the characteristic features of any of the known. And the alphabet contains much more characters than the main ones studied, with the exception of Chinese. The text itself is incredibly interesting, but the 87 illustrations accompanying it are even more fascinating. It depicts various things - from landscapes to military battles and social life. But the Code also uses religious iconography, which is unique to a number of different religions, including Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism. This means that the illustrations show simultaneously features of many different concessions. Several attempts have been made to partially translate the Rohonts Codex, each with unique results. One scholar declared that the text was religious in nature, and another that the book was the stories of the Vlachs, a Latin culture that once flourished in the territory of modern Romania. But the most popular version of the origin of the document is its creation in the middle of the 19th century by Samuel Nemesh, a famous forger. This idea is controversial, as there is evidence that the text of the Code is not just gibberish. Nevertheless, the theory of forgery cannot be completely refuted. Scientists are still fighting over the text, there is not even a single point of view about the order in which letters should be read - from left to right or vice versa, whether from top to bottom or bottom to top.
Rongo-rongo. These wooden plaques from Easter Island contain hieroglyphic writing. It is not so much text as artifacts. Scientists are still trying to decipher the pictographic writing that originated on this small island. There are 25 such tablets, and in 1862 the last ones who could read this ancient language were taken into slavery in Chile. In 1864, Bishop Eiro reported that he had seen Rongo-rongo tablets in almost every home, but two years later, a series of civil strife and colonization destroyed almost all the ancient artifacts. The mystery of stone carving on wooden plaques remains one of the greatest lingual unresolved in the world. This happened due to the complete isolation of Easter Island. As a result, Rongo-rongo was created without the influence of other languages. Scientists, on the other hand, had a unique opportunity to explore how writing came to be. Like the Egyptian hieroglyphs, Rongo-rongo are pictograms in nature, consisting of series and single characters. It is believed that the symbols themselves could have been keys, meaning some plants or animals that were common on the island even before Europeans discovered it. Many studies have been devoted to the Rongo-rongo tablets, but scientists have not been able to decipher the writing system. As a result, some experts argue that these are not letters at all, but a kind of decorative art. Recently, it was possible to correlate the symbols with the lunar calendar, which proves the meaningfulness of the hieroglyphs, but the secret of Rongo-rongo remains unsolved.
Bale's cryptograms. The story of Bale's ciphers could have overshadowed the imagination of the Hollywood screenwriters. So, in 1820, in Virginia, a stranger Thomas Bale left a box with important documents for safekeeping in a hotel. When, 12 years later, it became clear that the owner of the papers would not return, Robert Morris opened the drawer. In addition to receipts and letters, three sheets of paper covered with a number of numbers were found in the cache. Morris spent several years deciphering the cryptic pages. From the cover letter it followed that in 1817 Bale, along with his squadron, attacked a gold mine. The recovered treasures were safely hidden, and the exact location of the treasure and its description were told in encrypted messages. In 1862, aged Morris handed over the sheets to a young friend of his. He soon managed to decipher one page, the key turned out to be the "Declaration of Independence". The researcher, simply selecting the books one after another, tried to find the right one by the method of searching. It was not possible to decipher the first, the main page, which told about the location of the treasure. Ultimately, the Bale cipher was released to the public, allowing people to try their luck on the treasure hunt. Since the cryptogram and history itself became public, hundreds of treasure hunters have rushed into the area described in the leaflet. But no one was able to find Bale's gold and jewelry. There is a version that the ciphers are a banal deception, especially since some of the details in the story simply do not agree. Nevertheless, the search for Bale's treasure, both by decrypting the cryptogram and simply by digging up the indicated area, continues. This is not surprising, the value of the treasure is estimated at $ 30-40 million.
Kryptos. This sculpture by James Sanborn was installed in 1990 in front of the CIA headquarters in Langsley. The mystery is presented by the text on an S-shaped copper plate. The cipher is so complex that even better than CIA cryptanalysts, they cannot decipher it and understand what the artist wrote there. The sculpture was originally intended to be a memorial to the intelligence gathering work that made the agency famous. However, the artist decided not to limit himself to just a beautiful piece of art, but to go further. He did not have his own knowledge of encryption; Ed Scheidt, the former head of the cryptographic center, was called in to help. The code contains 865 characters in total, it is divided into 4 sections, each of which, presumably, is a partial key to the following. Sanborn calls this encryption a riddle within a riddle that only the most sophisticated decoding techniques can solve. The Sanborn and Scheidt cipher quickly attracted the attention of amateur and professional cryptographers, since it was in a prominent public place. Experts from the CIA and NSA have tried their hand at hacking, there is even a community on the Internet of thousands of participants. All that has been possible in twenty years is to decipher three of the four sections of the code. The first 7 years did not work at all, which greatly surprised Sanborn. The first three sections were encrypted using various methods, and a spelling error was deliberately introduced into the keys. The first section is the author's text "Between the darkness and the absence of light lies the nuance of illusion." The second one contains the text of a telegraph transmission with the coordinates of a point not far from the monument; by the way, nothing related to the cipher was found there. The third section is a paraphrased note by the anthropologist Carter who found Tutankhamun's tomb. However, the fourth, most important and most difficult section remained unconquered. Despite the fact that Sanborn periodically gives hints about the keys, the last 97 characters remain unsolved.
The Urantia Book. This religious and philosophical book was first published in 1955 in Chicago. The work seeks to expand cosmic consciousness and strengthen spiritual perception through discussions of the philosophy, cosmology, and life of Jesus. The book was born in Chicago at the beginning of the 20th century, the very question of its appearance became an object of research and the foundation for the entire teaching. Over 2000 pages written by an unknown author. In 1925, Dr. William Sadler came into contact with a sick person who, in a state of trance, recited texts aloud. The monologues were recorded by the doctor and his stenographer. Sadler argued that the authorship of the book belongs to some supernatural beings who received permission to transmit such invaluable information. The Earth itself is called Urantia in the texts, but the book has many similarities with the main religions, but it also spends a lot of time discussing scientific theories. The first part of the book talks about the concept of the universe, the second - describes the geography of the universe. It is said that in addition to the superuniverses, there is also our, local, created by Jesus Christ and consisting of 1000 inhabited planets. The third part reviews the history of the Earth, the goals of our world, and the last one describes the life of Christ. This whole story may sound just like science fiction, but there is the idea that The Urantia Book is not a secret, but a simple fake. Skeptics argue that Sadler and a group of confidants compiled the book themselves in the 1920s. Recent research has confirmed that Urantia is plagiarized from many religious teaching texts. And the scientific discrepancies between the materials of the Book and recognized dogmas are great. The issues of evolution and astronomy outlined there corresponded to the ideas of the beginning of the century, but subsequent discoveries put these facts into question. However, no definitive proof of the forgery was ever obtained. As a result, today there is a whole International Urantia Association with representations in 56 countries.
The Gnostic Gospels. These books are also known as the Nag Hammadi Gospel Collection. The collection of leather-bound books dates back to the 4th century and were written in Coptic. Here, in 1945, Egyptian farmers found the main texts of Gnosticism, an offshoot of Christianity that has existed since the 2nd century. The adherents of the doctrine believed that true salvation can be achieved through deep self-understanding and understanding of the highest reality.The Gnostics were distinguished from Christianity by a different belief in God, the absence of discrimination against women, and religious tolerance. The texts belong to the 1st-3rd centuries, among the Gnostic Gospels there is the Gospel of Thomas, Mary and even Judas. Unique books were hidden in a jar, it is believed that in this way the priest hoped to protect them from the influence of centuries and from the Church, which considers the Gnostics as heretics. The Gnostic Gospels changed hands, being resold on the black market. In the 1970s, they eventually fell into the hands of specialists and were translated into English. Since then, the new Gospels have become very popular, taking their place in various novels and films. Controversy about these texts does not subside, not only for their coincidence with the Bible, but also over some of Christ's sayings that are not reflected in the New Testament. In the list of found manuscripts, most of the entries were recognized by scholars, who eventually translated the texts into a number of languages. In addition, books occupy an important place in the study of Gnosticism and its history as a belief system. In academic and religious circles, disputes about previously unknown facts of the life of Jesus flared up with renewed vigor. Some believe that the Gnostic Gospels are simply heretical fabrications, while others believe that these records should be considered alongside the accepted Bible and New Testament.
The Voynich manuscript. Of all the strangest and most mysterious texts discovered over hundreds of years, perhaps the most famous is the Voynich manuscript. This book was created by an unknown author in an unknown language, every cryptographer who tried to decipher it was out of work. It is known that the manuscript was created in the 15th century; on thin parchment, someone wrote 240 pages of text with pictures. The book contains 170 thousand characters, and the alphabet contains about 30 letters. Potential authors include Roger Bacon, John Dee, Edward Kelly and others. The first known owner of the mystery book was the Prague alchemist Bares, who already at the beginning of the 17th century tried to decipher what he had written. For 200 years, the fate of the book was unknown until it finally surfaced in the library of the Roman Jesuits. After changing several owners, the manuscript came in 1909 to Wilfred Voynich, a Polish bookseller. After his death, the book became the object of intense interest for linguists and cryptographers, who spent years studying the mysterious language and alphabet. There are many theories about the manuscript, in particular, it is believed that it is a collection of some kind of coded puzzles, that it is not yet open language, that it should be read under a microscope, and even that it was written in a trance state under divine influence. All these are just theories, and more than half a century of studying the book has not yielded a key. The pages contain a variety of plant drawings and astronomical diagrams, biological processes and recipes. This suggests that it contains instructions for medicine or alchemy, but this hypothesis has not been proven by anything. The resistance of the Voynich manuscript to deciphering gave rise to the idea of a hoax. Critics of this opinion respond that the book's syntax is too complex to be fake. It is said that the technology of the time and the way of coding could have allowed such a joke to be created. As a result, none of the arguments fully satisfy the scientists. Recent radiocarbon analysis has shown. That the age of the manuscript really belongs to the 15th century, but the origin of the work and its purpose remain a mystery.