Many people think that there can be nothing interesting in the deserts. Below are the 10 most unusual deserts in the world.
Takla Makan is a snow-covered desert. Central Asia is home to one of the largest sandy deserts in the world, which is one of the twenty largest non-polar deserts in the world. Takla-Makan area is about 270 thousand square kilometers. From the Tarim Basin, it stretches 1000 kilometers in length and 400 kilometers in width. It is through the borders of this desert that the Great Silk Road runs - travelers tried to avoid arid areas. China's largest desert experienced heavy snowfalls in 2008, with record low temperatures for 11 days. Here even snow fell, which covered almost the entire desert.
Lencois Maranhenses is a desert with lagoons. Brazil is a country that contains about 30%. The largest rainforests in the world are also located here. It seems surprising to be in such a humid and green country of deserts. In the north of Brazil, in the state of Maranhao, there is the Lencois Maranhenses National Park with an area of 300 square kilometers. It features dazzling white dunes and deep blue lagoons that make the place truly beautiful and unique. The dunes here stretch across the continent for 50 kilometers. In this place of the desert, a lot of precipitation traditionally falls, as a result, water droplets collect in the dunes, forming ponds with crystal clear water between the dunes. Although Lencois Maranhenses is considered a desert, the average rainfall here is about 1600 mm per year, which is 300 times more than in the Sahara! Naturally, when a drought hits, the lagoons evaporate and become completely dry. But after the rainy season, the lagoons again host numerous inhabitants - turtles, mollusks and fish. The secret is where the numerous living creatures go and where they come from. On this score, there are various hypotheses, one of which says that the eggs of crabs and fish are stored in the sand until the desired moisture returns.
Salar de Uyuni is the largest salt desert. For Bolivia, this area is iconic - a huge salty desert stretches on the plateau. It is quite wide and its surface is flat. That is why, during the rains, the water creates the thinnest layer of water here, which creates a kind of mirror - the largest in the world. There are also some strange colored lakes in the desert. This is due to local mineral deposits. About 40 millennia ago, there was a giant prehistoric lake Minchin, after its disappearance there are now two - Poopo and Uru-Uru, as well as two large salt deserts - Salar de Coipasa and Uyuni. The size of Uyuni is impressive - it is 25 times larger than the Bonneville salt lake in America. It is estimated that there are about 10 billion tons of salt here, while only about 25 thousand tons are mined per year.
Farafra is a white desert. The Egyptian desert is called "El-Beida Sahara", which means "the meaning of the desert." The White Desert of Egypt is located 45 kilometers from the Farafr oasis. From Cairo to these places - 500 kilometers. The desert has a white or creamy color that actually looks like this in contrast to the yellow sand elsewhere. It is also home to massive chalk cliffs created by sandstorms. White rock of karst formations - traces of the ocean splashing here millions of years ago. The remains of marine organisms have turned into white dust over the centuries under the influence of the sun and winds. Since 2002, this area has been declared a national park of Egypt.
Atacama is a desert that blooms. Atacama, located on the west coast of Chile between Arica and Antofagasta, has entered the Guinness Book of Records as the driest place in the world. The Peruvian Current cools the lower atmosphere, thereby preventing precipitation. But its southern part is not so scary for living beings. To the south of Antofagasta there are coastal fogs, "camanchas", which carry with them increased humidity, thus supporting the coastal scenic vegetation. For plants, this is almost the only way to survive, moreover, the harsh economy of moisture forces them to postpone such important functions as growth in favor of reproduction and survival. Man also learned to extract moisture in the desert. Human-sized cylinders are located here - mist eliminators. Droplets of moisture condense on the walls made of nylon threads; in one day, the device can give up to 18 liters of water. In addition, the desert is rich in copper and sodium nitrate. It is no coincidence that there are still territorial disputes between Chile and Bolivia over desert areas.
Namib is a desert with elephants. South Africa is home to the immense Namib Desert. Although it is not as extensive as the Sahara in area, it is no less impressive. Namib is part of the Namib-Naukluft National Park, which also stretches across the territory of neighboring Angola. It is here that the sand dunes are the highest in the world, rising up to 300 meters. If the travelers are lucky, then here you can stumble upon the desert Namibian elephants. These animals live in only one desert. The Namib is one of the oldest formations of its kind in the world, and there are many animals and plants. Although the desert has long been the object of close attention of geologists, it still remains a mysterious and little-studied place. Not far from the coast, a south wind blows, it generates fogs and strong currents, which have caused many sailors to lose their course. The northern coast is called the Skeleton Coast, since it was here that many ships sank, some of which can be found at a distance of 50 meters inland. The fact is that the desert is gradually reclaiming its meters from the ocean.
The Simpson Desert is a red sand desert. Australia is the mainland of four great deserts popularized by the Mad Max movie. The most notable of these is the Simpson Desert. It is here that the world's longest red sand dunes, which, moreover, are located in parallel. They stretch from south to north, reaching a height of 40 meters, held in place by vegetation. In total, there are about 1100 dunes in the desert. The length of the desert itself is about 170 kilometers, but there are also stone islands in the middle of the sands. There are no special roads through Simpson, their role is played by the transport routes laid here by gas and oil seekers in the past years. An old railway line runs along the western edge of the desert. The desert is recognized as a national park, attracting hundreds of tourists every year. They are not afraid of the exhausting heat, sandstorms and impassable roads. In summer, the temperature here reaches 50 ° C, which even caused the death of several people here. That is why the Australian government has decided to close Simpson to the public during a particularly hot period.
Black Desert - A desert with black stones. At a distance of 100 kilometers from the White Desert is the Black Desert. Here the mountains are volcanic, which has led to the appearance of a large number of black stones. They lie on orange-brown ground, so the desert is hardly completely black. Although the contrast after visiting the neighboring White Desert is really great, moreover, the Black Desert is uninhabited.
Antarctica is a wet and dry desert. This continent is a land of extremes. It is no coincidence that a person does not live here constantly - it is too cold. In 1983, it was here that the lowest temperature on Earth, -89 ° C, was recorded. This cold desert can be considered wet not because of precipitation, but because of the ice, which covers 98% of Antarctica. But since it is very cold here, there is very little rainfall - less than 2 inches per year. This makes Antarctica a cold desert.
Sahara is the largest desert. North Africa is home to the largest desert on Earth. It stretches 4,800 kilometers from west to east and 1,000 kilometers from north to south. As a result, the Sahara occupies almost a third of the area of all Africa! The desert partially covers the territory of more than a dozen states. This area cannot be defined within the framework of one desert; many regions stand out here. Recent research by scientists has found that the Sahara became a desert about 2,700 years ago as a result of slow climate change. Even 6 thousand years ago, trees grew here and lakes splashed everywhere.