In nature, there is the phenomenon of albinism. After all, many facts on the topic of albinism are simply unknown to many.
Albinism statistics. The numbers tell amazing things about this phenomenon. It turns out that it is not that rare. In European countries, one in twenty thousand people are albino. Such deviations are even more common in the Negroid race. When scientists examined 14,292 Nigerian children, five albinos were found among them. Thus, the proportion is about one in three thousand. And among the Indians of Panama living on the coast of San Blas Bay, the frequency is generally striking - 1 case per 132 people. On a global scale, 1% of people are albinos, which in absolute terms is not at all small. Geneticists have shown by their research that the gene for albinism in humans is not at all uncommon. It's just that it is in a recessive position and is not active. Every seventy person is a hidden carrier of the gene.
Albino health. The absence of pigment is due to complete or partial blockade of the tyrosinase enzyme. It is needed for the production of melatonin, which is responsible for the color of tissues. But why such a failure occurs is unclear. Depigmentation can be of two types - primary and secondary. In the first case, we are talking about a congenital disorder, and in the second - about an acquired one, which sometimes implies not complete, but partial depigmentation. So those who like the appearance of albinos can try to change their appearance. Skin lightening can be done with solar radiation, and hair can be bleached with regular peroxide. But complete, or total albinism, is a rather difficult case for a person. After all, then there is no pigmentation at all. As a result, a person suffers from the fear of light all his life, his eyes hurt. This manifests itself in low visual acuity, strabismus, cataracts. The skin becomes dry and sensitive, reacting quickly and easily to burns. Incomplete albinism is completely resolved with the help of cosmetics. In this case, white spots may appear on the skin, gray strands come across in the hair, and the eyelashes become colorless. Life is still easier for such albinos, since their health is partially affected. A failure in the body often entails serious pathologies in the structure of tissues and organs. That is why albino embryos often do not live to give birth, dying at an early stage of development. Those who managed to survive have to endure a lot of inconveniences and limitations in life.
Children of the Moon. Throughout the history of mankind, albinos have always attracted attention, they were shown in circuses as a curiosity. But in small ethnic groups, this phenomenon was quite common due to the frequent marriages of relatives. People with such diseases were noted in 700 families with a rich pedigree. Focuses of albinism have been found in Northern Ireland. And in southern Panama, in the Caribe-kun tribe, scientists have discovered hundreds of albinos. The hot tropical sun badly affected their well-being, so they had to lead a nocturnal lifestyle. This is how the natives were nicknamed "Children of the Moon". And in cases of partial albinism, when the skin turned out to be covered with light spots, it was compared to the skin of skewbald horses.
Vampire Legends. Albinos look unusual, and their behavior seems strange. So their connection with vampires seems natural to many. A hundred years ago albinos were generally persecuted by some, while others worshiped them. Legends and superstitions began to form around unusual people, which was due to the external resemblance to vampires. It was believed that the eyes of these people are red for a reason, as if they glow. In fact, most spotted albinos have a grayish or light blue eye color. Redness, if present, is due to the poorly pigmented iris of the eye. She lets in the rays of the sun. The same ones, reflecting off the retina penetrated with blood vessels, and create a classic reddish tint. This is how "rabbit eyes" appeared. Albinos usually do not tolerate direct sunlight, risking burns or cancer. For ordinary people, this appearance and behavior looks suspicious. But nowadays, with protective clothing and goggles, albinos are not much different from others.
Albino hunting. Albinos are constantly under threat due to popular superstitions. Such people are even deliberately hunted, giving body parts to fans of black magic. And someone thinks that the people next to them are ill because of albinos. In developed countries you will no longer find such an attitude. It seems even on the black market there are no body parts for albinos. But in more backward countries, the hands and feet of "snow-white" people can become talismans, while other parts of their body are believed to have magical properties. As a result, hunting albinos becomes a very profitable activity. In Tanzania, the limb of such a person is approximately comparable to forty average annual income. The cost of the mascot, according to the local press, can reach 75 thousand dollars. And although the police catch fanatics, the danger to albinos has not been eradicated.
Albino celebrities. Currently, albino people are increasingly becoming objects of mass culture. Indeed, thanks to such a gift of nature, they are initially expressive and unusual. Why not use it as a ticket to the world of show business and fashion? The first albino model appeared, the Chinese woman Connie Chiu. The designers were not embarrassed by her slight squint. And she began her career at the age of 25, and not as a model, but in a reality show. There, a Chinese woman managed to attract attention. Two more albino models are African American. It's about Diandra Forrest and Shawn Ross. The latter became the first albino man to become a professional model. Both throughout childhood were attacked by peers who rewarded unusual children with offensive nicknames. But fate rewarded the albinos for their patience. And Stephen Thompson managed to become the face of the Givenchy brand. He also did not intend to become a model, considering music to be his vocation. Now Steven's photographs grace magazine covers. There are also albino models in Russia, one can at least mention Anastasia Kumarova.
Albino associations. These people are so rare and unique that they try to find their own kind and get closer to them. If there are unions of redheads, bald ones in the world, why not a Union of colorless ones? It discusses issues related to the attitude of society towards albinos. A minority is fighting against persecution and for a normalcy. And more and more organizations appear in the world that defend the rights of albinos. For example, in Malawi, it took two years for these people to register their own organization. Discrimination arises from excessively fair skin, which is so unlike normal skin. The activists of the association are trying to draw attention to their state problems. Albinos strive to harmoniously adapt to society, because they are the same people as others. The most active representatives of African albino societies are working to create a network of clinics. Adults would be able to get there and medical care and advice on raising unusual children. Similar clinics have already been established in Tanzania. Having united, albinos gradually, step by step, make them respect their problems.
Medicines for albinos. People with genetic disabilities often die earlier than others. But this is not the case with albinism. The disease does not in any way affect the growth of children and their intellectual development, the work of internal organs does not deteriorate. Previously, albinism was associated with mental retardation, but this is most likely just a coincidence. True, there are still some health problems. It is worth talking about visual impairment, increased photosensitivity of the skin, a predisposition to skin cancer, poor blood clotting (due to which hematomas are easily formed and bleeding is formed). But all this can be dealt with. The main weapon is light-protective and sun-protection means, special glasses. Strabismus can be corrected with the help of a surgeon. But only if pathological changes develop in the retina and nerves of the eyes, then they cannot be corrected. The lack of vitamin D, which the body usually receives from the sun's rays, can be replenished with special vitamins. And no "antidote" for albinism has been found. Modern scientists so far are only experimenting with correcting the damaged section of the gene and replacing it with a normal one. But these operations on humans have not yet been carried out. Usually genes interact with each other, thoughtlessly changing them can harm the entire chain.
Albino animals. It turns out that albinism also occurs in the animal kingdom. Such creatures turn out to be very attractive to humans, but in nature they suffer from this a lot. If the skin of the animal stands out among its congeners, then it will be much more difficult to hide from the predator. And the albino hunter himself will be visible from afar, which will complicate the pursuit of the game. Females prefer bright, rather than monochromatic males, which makes it difficult for albinos to reproduce. In animals, there is a phenomenon opposite to albinism - melanism. In this case, we are talking about an overestimated level of dark pigment. But it is still not as conspicuous as the coat with dark spots.
Albinos in the anime. The unusual appearance of people is reflected in cartoons, especially albinos are "in demand" in anime. There the heroes either have unusual properties from the very beginning, or acquire them in the course of the narrative. The roles of albinos in the anime differ little from those that formed superstitions: vampires, sick people, and even the impersonation of a rabbit from Alice in Wonderland. In any case, these characters are surrounded by mystery, they know some secrets. Images are in the spotlight. Anime fans will have no problem remembering albino idols. But in real life, such people constantly face problems that the creators of cartoons prefer not to talk about.